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HKIN 103. Principles of Physical Activity And Exercise prescription. GETTING STARTED. A little Exercise Physiology. Muscle Architecture . Muscle body Fasciculus Muscle fibre Myofibrils. Muscle Architecture . Muscle body Fasciculus Muscle fibre Myofibrils. Muscle Architecture .

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HKIN 103

Principles of Physical Activity

And

Exercise prescription


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A little Exercise Physiology


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Muscle Architecture

  • Muscle body

  • Fasciculus

  • Muscle fibre

  • Myofibrils


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Muscle Architecture

  • Muscle body

  • Fasciculus

  • Muscle fibre

  • Myofibrils


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Muscle Architecture

  • Muscle body

  • Fasciculus

  • Muscle fibre

  • Myofibrils

  • Sarcomere


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Muscle Architecture-myofibrilar proteins

  • Myosin (large)

  • Actin (smaller)


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Muscle Architecture-myofibrilar proteins

  • Myosin (large)

  • Actin (smaller)


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Muscle Architecture-myofibrilar proteins

  • Myosin (large)

  • Actin (smaller)


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Muscle Architecture

  • Sarcomere

  • Z-Lines

  • Myosin filament

  • Actin filament


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Muscular Contraction

  • Sliding filament theory

    • Calcium is released

    • Actin slides over the myosin

    • (Benjamin-Cummings)


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Muscle Contraction

  • A muscle cell

  • Mitochondria

  • organelles


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Bioenergetics: phosphorylation of ADP to ATP


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Bioenergetics

  • Movement uses PCr to initiate.

  • Defers to Aerobic metabolism, but…

  • Switches to the metabolic system that will provide ATP as required.

  • Therefore the bioenergetic system that predominates in the supply of ATP will be decided by the intensity of exercise.


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The PRINCIPLES of Physiologic Adaptation


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The Principles

  • # 1 The principle of ‘Overload’

    • Muscles must work against a load that is greater than normal to improve.

    • The cardiovascular system must be overloaded to improve.

  • # 2 The Principle of ‘Progression’

    • Follow a plan

    • The plan should follow common sense: Too hard, too fast - too bad!!


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The Principles

  • # 3 Principle of ‘Specificity’

    • To gain benefit, you must overload progressively for that benefit.

    • Strength,power,endurance, throwing, kicking, jumping, high speed, low speed. Train for what you need!

  • # 4 The Principle of ‘Reversibility’

    • If you don’t use, you’ll lose it


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The Principles

  • # 5 The Principle of ‘Diminishing Returns’

    • The fitter/stronger you get, the harder it is to get fitter/stronger.

  • # 6 The F.I.T. Principles

    • Frequency

    • Intensity

    • Time (duration)



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F.I.T.T. Programming

  • F. = Frequency: number of times per week

  • I. = Intensity: the level of intensity one works out at, expressed as a % of maximum.

  • T = Time: duration of exercise bout usually expressed as minutes/sets.

  • T. = Type of exercise


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F.I.T.T. Programming

  • Threshold of training: the minimum amount of training that will produce a benefit.

  • Target Zone: A specific level of intensity and/or duration to derive a specific benefit.

  • Lactate Threshold: When the body’s metabolism switches to anaerobic methods.

  • OBLA: Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation. The body can no longer clear or buffer the lactic acid produced in anaerobic metabolism.

  • VO2 max: Aerobic power - maximum oxygen consumption during maximal graded exercise testing.


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What happens during Exercise

  • Muscular activity requires energy

  • That energy is delivered in the form of Adenosine Triphospate (ATP).

  • This energy can be supplied aerobically (in the presence of oxygen) or anaerobically (in the absence of oxygen).

  • The system used for delivering energy is dependent on the INTENSITY of exercise.


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What happens during Exercise

  • The increased need for energy and oxygen causes an increase in heart and ventilation rates.

  • The increased cellular metabolism causes an increase in heat production, which stimulates our thermoregulatory systems.

  • The core heat is transferred to the exterior environment.

  • Energy supplies are depleted, and must be restored.


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What happens during Exercise

  • The increased need for energy and oxygen causes an increase in heart and ventilation rates.

  • The increased cellular metabolism causes an increase in heat production, which stimulates our thermoregulatory systems.

  • The core heat is transferred to the exterior environment.

  • Energy supplies are depleted, and must be restored.


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Some is Better than None!

HEALTHRISK

OLD CONCEPT OF TRAINING

REVISED CONCEPT OF TRAINING

AMOUNT OF ACTIVITY



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Preparation for an Exercise Program

  • Establish Medical readiness:

    • Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR_Q)

    • ACSM Risk Stratification Categories and Criteria

    • Blood pressure at rest (no exercise if systolic >140mm Hg or diastolic > 90 mm Hg)

  • Correct equipment and clothes.

    • Shoes

    • Clothing appropriate for ambient conditions

    • Head protection from sun or cold


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Preparation for an Exercise Program

  • PAR-Q: screening document, ages 19 - 69

Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor?

Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity?

In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing physical activity?

Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose consciousness?

Do you have a bone or joint problem (for example, back, knee or hip) that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity?

Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (for example, water pills) for your blood pressure or heart condition?

Do you know of any other reason why you should not do physical activity?


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Preparation for an Exercise Program

  • 70 years of age and over, physicians OK


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ACSM Guidelines

  • Because of increased risk, certain individuals should be given a graded exercise test prior to performing vigorous exercise:

    • Older individuals (men > 40 / women > 50)

    • Individuals with CHD risk factors(Family history, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, sedentary lifestyle, smoker, diabetic)


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ACSM Risk Stratification(based primarily on risks due to CHD)

  • Apparently healthy (1)

    • Asymptomatic

    • Only 1 risk factor

  • Increased risk (2)

    • Symptoms of CHD

    • Two or more risk factors

  • Known disease (3)

    • Known cardiac, pulmonary or metabolic disease


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Getting Ready


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Preparation for an Exercise Program

  • Equipment:

    • Exactly what do you need to get fit?

      • Cardio

      • Strength

      • Endurance

      • power

      • Balance

      • Coordination

    • What do you need for different modes of exercise?

      • Cycling, climbing


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Wearing Good Shoes is Important

  • 1. Running

  • 2. Court

  • 3. Aerobic

  • 4. Walking

  • 5. Tennis

  • 6. Cross trainers


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Shoe design issues

  • Sole lasting: straight/curved

  • Inner lasting: board/stitched

  • Heel counter/Achilles notch

  • Heel counter lateral attachments


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Factors to Consider During Daily Physical Activity

  • Importance of warm-up and cool-down for reducing risk of injuries and soreness

  • Environmental factors


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Preparing for Physical Activity: Summary

  • General Exercise Guidelines

    • Choose something you like

    • Know your limitations

    • Dress appropriately

    • Start slowly

    • Listen to your body


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Components of a Workout

  • Warm-up

  • Main activity

  • Cool-down


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Benefits of a Warm-up

  • Prepare cardiovascular system

  • Prepare metabolic system

  • Prepare musculoskeletal system


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Components of a Warm-up

  • Cardiovascular component

  • Flexibility component

    • Static programs

    • Ballistic programs

    • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular facilitation(PNF)

    • Active Assisted programs

    • Dynamic programs


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Benefits of a Cool-down

  • Reduces blood pooling

  • Promotes recovery

  • Minimizes muscle soreness


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Components of a Cool-down

  • Slowly reduce intensity level to reduce cardiovascular response to stressor

  • Clears metabolic waste and maintains healthier muscle tissue and reduced soreness.

  • Stretching returns muscles to pre-exercise length, maintaining flexibility.


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Fitness Assessment


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Fitness Assessment

  • Cardiovascular fitness

  • Muscular Strength

  • Muscular endurance

  • Flexibility

  • Body Composition


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Fitness Assessment - Cardiovascular

  • Use maximum graded exercise tests (GXT)

  • Or Submaximum GXT

  • Or field tests (advantages are large numbers can be tested easily and cheaply)

    • 20 meter Beep test

    • Step test


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Fitness assessment - cardiovascular

  • A submax aerobic fitness assessment yields a prediction of VO2max: measurement of oxygen utilization during maximum exhaustive exercise.

  • Can be compared to norms for individual assessment and exercise prescription.


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Fitness assessment - muscular strength

  • Done using:

    • 1 maximum lift (1RM)

    • Submaximal predictions (maximum resistance to do 10 or fewer lifts)


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Fitness assessment - muscular strength

  • Submaximal predictions can be done from a chart (included in the lab) or by using a prediction equation.


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Exercise Prescription


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  • F. I. T.

    Frequency


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Cardio - Frequency - Average

  • Threshold: 3 days per week for progressive improvement.

  • Moderate: 3 - 5 days per week

  • High: 5 - 7 days per week


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Cardio - Frequency - Athletic

  • Local competition - 2 times per week

  • Regional/national - 3 - 5 times per week

  • National/international: - 6 - 12 times per week


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Resistance training - frequency - Average person

  • Threshold: 1 time per week

  • Moderate: 3 times per week

  • High: 5 times per week


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Resistance training - frequency - Athletic person

  • Threshold: 2 time per week

  • Moderate: 3 times per week

  • High: 5 times per week

  • All Groups…….

  • Must have 24 - 48 hrs rest between W/O’s on any one muscle group. (dose related)

  • Must have 72 hrs rest after plyometric W/O


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  • F. I. T.

    Intensity


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Cardiovascular endurance:

  • Resting heart rate (RHR): take when waking

  • Maximal Heart rate (MHR):age predicted maximal heart rate

  • Heart Rate reserve (HRR):the heart rate range between rest and maximum (MHR-RHR)

  • Target Heart Rate (THR):some percentage of the HRR, plus the RHR.


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Cardio - Intensity - Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)

  • Maximal Heart rate:

    • Old method: 220-age = MHR (bpm)

    • New methods: Age 19 - 55

    • Males =203.9-(.812*age) + (0.276*RHR) - (0.084*wt (Kg)) -(4.5*smoking factor(1 or 0) = MHR (bpm)

    • Females =204.8 - (0.718*age) + (0.162*RHR) - (0.105* wt(kg)) - (6.2* smoking factor) =MHR (bpm)

    • New Method: >55 years

    • Males: 207 - (age*0.7) = MHR bpm

    • Females: 230 - (age*1.1) = MHR bpm


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Cardio - Intensity - Resting Heart Rate (RHR)

  • When you wake up, slowly reach out for your watch and take your radial pulse for 10 or 15 seconds and multiply by 6 or 4.

  • RECORD the RHR in beats* minute-1 (bpm)

  • Leave the record by your bed for the next morning.

  • Do this on 4 - 5 consecutive mornings

  • Average your recorded heart rates.


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Cardio - Intensity - Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)

  • Subtract your RHR from your MHR. (MHR - RHR)

  • This is the HRR. It is the functional range of your heart rate: I.e. the number of bpm your heart has to operate within, given certain circumstances.

  • Your heart rate at any moment in time is influenced by movement, stress, eating, relaxing, visualizing or mood.

  • It will not, however, exceed the limits of the HRR.


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Cardio - Intensity - Target Heart Rates (THR) - methods

  • % of MHR

  • % of VO2 max

  • % of OBLA

  • % of HRR

  • % of Functional capacity (METS)

    • ! MET is energy consumption @ rest

    • 1 MET = 3.5 ml*kg-1 * min -1

    • ! MET = 1 Kcal * kg-1 * hr-1


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Cardio - Intensity - Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)

  • Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)

    Borg 10 pt % HRR

    Light 10 2 40 - 50

    Moderate 12 4 60

    Mod-hard 13 6 70

    Hard 15 8 80

    Very hard 17 9 90

    Maximal 19-29 10 100


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Cardio - Intensity - Target Heart Rate (THR)

  • % MHR:

    Predicted MHR is highly variable (+/- 12 - 20 bpm).

  • Example: Find THR at 70% of MHR.

  • My MHR is 207-(age*0.7) = 165 bpm

  • My THR is 165 * 0.70 = 116 bpm


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CARDIO - Intensity - THR

  • % HRR

  • THR = [ (MHR-RHR) * %] + RHR

  • THR = ( HRR * % ) + RHR

  • Example:

    THR = [(165 - 55) * 0.70] + 55

    THR = [110 * 0.70] + 55

    THR = 132 bpm


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Cardio - Intensity - Target Heart Rate (THR)

  • % MHR:

  • My THR is 165 * 0.70 = 116 bpm

  • Predicted MHR is highly variable (+/- 12 - 20 bpm), therefore,

  • ACSM correction is THR * 1.15

  • My exercising THR = 116*1.15 = 133 bpm

  • %HRR=132, % MHR=133


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Intensity - Endurance activities

  • Threshold: 40 - 60% HRR

  • Moderate : 60 - 75% HRR

  • High : 75 - 85% HRR

    We could also represent these THR’s as:

  • Threshold: 40 -50% = aerobic capacity

  • Moderate: 50 - 65% = aerobic power

  • High: 65 - 85% = anaerobic capacity


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Intensity for Resistance training.

  • Usually taken as a percentage of 1 rep max (1RM) - the maximum weight one can just lift once.

  • Intensity varies with goals:

    • Tone/ preparation 40 - 60% 1RM

    • Hypertrophy 65 - 80% 1Rm

    • Strength 85 - 100+% 1RM

    • Power 30 - 50%/90 - 100%

    • Precompetition Body/implement weight.


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  • F.I.T.

    Length of TIME (duration)


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Duration of exercise- endurance type

  • Threshold: 15 minutes of endurance exercise

  • Moderate: 30 - 45 minutes

  • High: > 45 minutes

    One does not need to train at a ‘goal’ distance.

    One should only train one long run / week.

    Mix up the running pace on the other days.


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Duration of exercise- endurance type

  • How Many Times / Week??

  • Aerobic capacity: as many as possible - volume training, but a minimum of three (3) times / week.

  • Aerobic power: three times a week - quality training.

  • Anaerobic capacity: two times a week

  • Anaerobic Power: two times a week; 1 day of heavy plyo, 1 day of mod/light plyos


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Duration of exercise-resistance training

  • Depends on goals, but in general:

    • Threshold 2 sets of 15 - 20 reps

    • Moderate 3-4 sets of 15 - 20 reps

    • High 5-8 sets of mixed reps


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The type of training

  • Resistance training

  • Cardiovascular training

  • Balance training

  • Core training

  • Reactive training


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Type of training

  • Resistance training

    • Machines

    • Free weights

    • Therabands

    • Dumbbells

    • Bodyweight

    • Inertial

    • Others??


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Type of training

  • Cardiovascular training

    • Cycling / Running, (real or ergometer/treadmill)

    • Rowing (real or ergometer)

    • Arm ergometer

    • Walking, golf, nordic poling

    • Rollerblade, rollerskis

    • Swimming

    • Lawn BOWLING?

  • Which do both strength & cardio??


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Type of training

  • Balance training

    • Fitter boards

    • Balance bladders

    • Stability/physio balls

    • Body weight

    • Circe du Soleil

    • Foam // rollers

  • Are any of these useful for strength and cardio as well??


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Type of training

  • Core training

    • Yoga

    • Pilates

    • Stability balls

    • dumbbells


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Type of training

  • Reactive training

    • Chaotic drills

    • Using unstable surfaces


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Training Muscles

  • We can train muscles to:

    • Get big (bodybuilders)

    • Get strong (in order to ….)

    • Get powerful (any sporting endeavour)

    • Have endurance (runners, cyclists)

    • Perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL’s)

    • Prevent loss of strength.

    • Others???


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Training Muscles - fibre type

  • The gains we are capable of eliciting from training depend largely on muscle fiber type.

  • Type I fibers (slow twitch, slow oxidative)

  • Type IIa fibers (fast oxidative glycolytic)

  • Type IIb fibres (Fast twitch, Fast glycolytic )


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Training Muscles - muscle metabolism

  • There are two basic type of muscle metabolism:

    • Aerobic (that which occurs in the presence of oxygen)

    • Anaerobic (that which occurs in the absence of oxygen)

      Each of these metabolic pathways have two subtypes.


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Training Muscles - muscle metabolism

  • Aerobic -oxidation: uses FFA’s as substrate

  • Aerobic Glycolysis: uses pyruvic acid as substrate

  • Anaerobic Glycolysis: uses glycogen as substrate

  • Anaerobic Alactic:uses Phospho-creatine as substrate


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Training Muscles - muscle metabolism

  • Palmitrate (a fat) H2O + CO2 + 129 ATP

  • Pyruvic Acid Lactic acid + 37 ATP

  • Glycogen Pyruvate Lactic acid + 3ATP

  • CrP P-1 + Cr. + 1 ATP


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Training Muscles - muscle metabolism

Aerobic metabolism Glycolytic Alactic

Type I fibres Type IIa fibres Type IIb fibres

slow ATP prod. Faster fastest

Excellent endur fatigable v. fatigable

slow TTPT Faster v. fast TTPT

low demand for ATP greater greatest demand

High aerobic enzyme content both v. low aerobic enzyme

v. Low anaerobic enzyme both v. high anaerobic enzyme

Small x-sectional area intermediate large x-sectional area

ENDURANCE COMBO 100% INTENSITY


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Training Muscles - progressions

  • Start with endurance and move to strength and power (generally)

  • Start with strength and go to endurance with 1 day/week on plyos (endurance athlete)

  • Therefore start 15 - 20 reps, 2 - 3 sets 40 - 60% 1RM

  • For size, 7 - 12 reps, 3-4 sets 65 -80% 1RM

  • For strength - 1-6 reps, 85 - 100%

  • For power - 40 - 60%, until velocity drops.


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Training Cardiovascular System - progressions

  • Start with: aerobic capacity


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Training Cardiovascular System - progressions

  • Start with: aerobic capacity

    then add aerobic power


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Training Cardiovascular System - progressions

  • Start with: DROP

    then add aerobic power

then add anaerobic capacity


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Training Cardiovascular System - progressions

  • Start with:

    then add aerobic power DROP

    then add anaerobic power

then add anaerobic capacity


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Training Cardiovascular System - progressions

  • Start with:

    then add DROP

    then add anaerobic power

then add anaerobic capacity


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Training Cardiovascular System - progressions

  • Start with:

    then add DROP

    then add anaerobic power

    Add 1 day per week aerobic training for aerobic base (depending on sport)

then add anaerobic capacity


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Training Cardiovascular System

  • For the athlete, progressions are necessary.

  • For the average person, min. 15 minutes, 3 times a week is good.

  • Cross train for variety and use of more muscle groups.

  • MAKE IT FUN !!!!


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F.I.T.T. Summary for cardiovascular health.

  • Recommendation for HEALTH is 30 - 60 minutes 5 - 7 days a week.

  • Something is better than nothing to lower risk of hypokinetic diseases.

  • Minimum for improvement is 15 minutes, 3 times a week.

  • Stress variety of training modes

  • Target HR should be 60 - 80 % of HRR


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F.I.T.T. summary of strength training

  • Train movement rather than muscles.

  • For the average person, using 40 - 50 % of 1RM and 15 to 20 reps gives best all-round muscle conditioning.

  • Use balance training in combination with strength training.

  • Use high speed movements every fourth week


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CASE STUDY

  • Get into groups of four

  • Write out a list of questions you would ask the following client.

  • Priorize the client’s needs.

  • Design a simple program for the client.


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Case study

  • Male, 45 years old, non-smoker.

  • BP: 145/105

  • Total cholesterol : 310 mg/dl

  • Resting HR : 70bpm

  • Height: 1.75 m.

  • Weight: 105 kg

  • Submax VO2 test : 32.2 ml* kg-1*min-1

  • Muscle strength and endurance rated: poor


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