Linguistic Variation in the Middle East. Kevin Flowers and Jason Gabriel. Algeria Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Gaza/West Bank Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon. Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen.
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Linguistic Variation in the Middle East
Kevin Flowers and Jason Gabriel
United Arab Emirates
Algeria – Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Bahrain – Arabic, English is widely spoken, Farsi, Urdu
Djibouti - French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Egypt – Arabic, English, French
Gaza/West Bank (Palestine) – Arabic, English is widely spoken, and Hebrew in East Jerusalem
Iran - Farsi and Persian dialects, Turkic and Turkic dialects, Kurdish, Luri, Balochi, Arabic, Turkish
Iraq - Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Israel - Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language
Jordan – Arabic, English
Kuwait – Arabic, English
Lebanon - Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian widely understood
Libya - Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Morocco – Arabic, Berber, and French
Oman - Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Qatar - Arabic; English is widely used
Saudi Arabia – Arabic, English
Sudan - Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages
Syria - Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
Tunisia - Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
Turkey - Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
United Arab Emirates - Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
Yemen - Arabic
While it is universally written, read, and understood in its standard (MSA) form, spoken Arabic has undergone regional and dialectical variations. Colloquial Arabic is diverse from region to region. For instance, the diversity within the family of dialects spoken in the Levantine (Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon) resembles the diversity between British and American English. The same can be said of the family of dialects spoken in Iraq and the Gulf countries.
ARABIC, ALGERIAN SAHARAN SPOKENARABIC, ALGERIAN SPOKENARABIC, BABALIA CREOLEARABIC, BAHARNA SPOKENARABIC, CHADIAN SPOKENARABIC, CYPRIOT SPOKENARABIC, DHOFARI SPOKENARABIC, EASTERN EGYPTIAN BEDAWI SPOKENARABIC, EGYPTIAN SPOKENARABIC, GULF SPOKENARABIC, HADRAMI SPOKENARABIC, HASANYAARABIC, HASSANIYYAARABIC, HIJAZI SPOKENARABIC, JUDEO-IRAQIARABIC, JUDEO-MOROCCANARABIC, JUDEO-TRIPOLITANIANARABIC, JUDEO-TUNISIANARABIC, JUDEO-YEMENIARABIC, LEVANTINE BEDAWI SPOKEN
ARABIC, LIBYAN SPOKENARABIC, MESOPOTAMIAN SPOKENARABIC, MOROCCAN SPOKENARABIC, NAJDI SPOKENARABIC, NORTH LEVANTINE SPOKENARABIC, NORTH MESOPOTAMIAN SPOKENARABIC, OMANI SPOKENARABIC, SA<IDI SPOKENARABIC, SANAANI SPOKENARABIC, SHIHHI SPOKENARABIC, SHUWAARABIC, SOUTH LEVANTINE SPOKENARABIC, STANDARDARABIC, SUDANESE CREOLEARABIC, SUDANESE SPOKENARABIC, TA'IZZI-ADENIARABIC, TA'IZZI-ADENI SPOKENARABIC, TAJIKI SPOKENARABIC, TUNISIAN SPOKENARABIC, UZBEKI SPOKENARABIC, WESTERN EGYPTIAN
The fact that Islam and the Arabic language are so closely tied together means that citizens of the Middle East feel strongly about the preservation of both. This duality has allowed for the creation of distinct and diverse dialects throughout the region.