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Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities through Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Presented at a conference Eurydice: i sistemi educativi europei al traguardo del 2010 (MIUR, Roma)

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Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities through Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe

Early Childhood Education and Care

in Europe:

Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities

Presented at a conference

Eurydice: i sistemi educativi europei al traguardo del 2010 (MIUR, Roma)

2009 Sep 25 by

Akvile Motiejunaite


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“Pre-primary education has the highest returns in terms of the social adaptation of children. Member States should invest more in pre-primary education as an effective means to establish the basis for further learning, preventing school drop-out, increasing equity of outcomes and overall skill levels”Commission Communication ‘Efficiency and Equity in European Education and Training Systems’ (September 2006)


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The study: the social adaptation of children. definitions

  • Discusses publicly subsidised and accredited provision for children under compulsory school age

  • Defines at risk children –‘children with disadvantages stemming mainly from socio-economic, cultural and/or language factors. The need arises from disadvantages attributable to these factors’ (OECD)

  • Covers 30 countries of Eurydice network

  • Refers to year 2006/2007


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The study: the social adaptation of children. structure

  • a review of scientific literature on the impact of high quality education and care on young children;

  • a summary of statistical data on relevant demographic characteristics of European families and the participation rates in ECEC;

  • a comparative analysis of policy measures based on information collected from national units of the Eurydice network.


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What does research tell us? the social adaptation of children.

ECEC benefits all children if

intensive, early starting,

child-focused, centre based

+

high qualified staff (specialised BA)

+

low staff/child ratios

+

parent involvement, family support


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European families the social adaptation of children.

with young children (under 6s)

  • 12 % of total households

  • Potential groups at-risk:

    • 17 % of households on the poverty threshold

      (PL, LT, UK, EE, IT, PT, LU > 20 %)

    • Single parent households 9 %

    • Non-national children 3 %

      (~ethnic minority and immigrant?)

Combination


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What is the current situation the social adaptation of children. regarding ECEC in Europe?

  • All countries have subsidised and accredited ECEC

    Limited or no for under 3s in CZ, EL, IE, NL, PL, UK, LI

  • Separate model: childcare vs. education

  • Unitary model: childcare with education

Parental employment status

catchments' area

age

universal access


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Model A: the social adaptation of children. Unitary settings

0-1 year to 5-6 years

with or without pre-primary classes

Model B: Separate settings

under 2-3 years

over 2-3 years

Mix A + B

Main models of (accredited and subsidised) ECEC provision according to the age of children, 2006/07


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Italy: Separate settings the social adaptation of children.

0 3 6

Asilo nido

Scuola dell’infanzia


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Level and minimum duration of initial education and training for staff working with children under 2-3 years, 2006/07

Level and minimum duration of initial education and training for staff working with

children over 2-3 years ( ISCED 0), 2006/07

Upper or post secondary

education

Tertiary education


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93 % for staff working with

87 %

74 %

99.8 %

Participation rate of children

from 3-6 years by agein pre-primary (ISCED 0) and primary (ISCED 1) education,

EU-27, 2005/06

  • Problematic access for:

    • under-3s (no Eurostat data!)

    • rural areas

  • Large variation between countries


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What is done for for staff working with

disadvantaged children?

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

TO SETTINGS

Additional resources

Incentives for staff

More favourable staff/child ratios

TO FAMILIES

Decreasing costs

SPECIFIC PROGRAMMES


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family income and for staff working with number of children

criteria other than family size and income

Tax advantages available for use of accredited fee-paying ECEC services in the public sector

Free access in all subsidised and

accredited services

Means of enhancing affordability of ECEC, 2006/07

Level of fees paid for accredited public sector ECEC services adjusted according to


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STAFF TRAINING for staff working with

Level

Duration

Skills required

PROVISION

Capacity/volume

Age of access

Staff ratio

Fees

ReducingCost

HIGH QUALITY EDUCATION AND CARE

Intensive verbal interactions

Cognitive stimulation

Good climate

Socialisation

PARENTAL

SUPPORT

Involvement

In ECEC

GREATEST BENEFITS TO CHILDREN AT RISK

POLICY MAKERS MAY HAVE A DIRECT INFLUENCE ON


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Grazie! for staff working with

The report is available onwww.eurydice.org


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