Essential aromatics from plants
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Essential aromatics from plants. . Cloves. Chinese breath sweetener Used in many food, drugs, cigarettes Myrtaceae Spice Islands Dutch destroyed many plantations to drive up the price (1700’s)

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Essential aromatics from plants l.jpg

Essential aromatics from plants

Cloves l.jpg

  • Chinese breath sweetener

  • Used in many food, drugs, cigarettes

  • Myrtaceae

  • Spice Islands

  • Dutch destroyed many plantations to drive up the price (1700’s)

  • Unopened flower buds

Active ingredients from cloves l.jpg
Active ingredients from cloves

  • Clove oil contains..

    • Eugenol

      • mixed with zinc oxide and used for dental cement

      • derivatives used as analgesics, a variety of other things

      • can be used to make vanilla

    • Methyleugenol is carcinogenic

      • Found in many spices

      • Eliminated quickly from the body?

Cinnamon l.jpg

  • Cinnomomum verum (zeylandicum)

  • True cinnamon

  • Native to Sri Lanka

  • Lauraceae family

  • Confusion with other Cinnamomum species

    • C. cassia has a stronger flavor

    • both can be called cinnamon in the US

    • C. camphora used for camphor

Chemicals in cinnamon l.jpg
Chemicals in cinnamon

  • About 90% of the essential oil is cinnamaldehyde

  • Eugenol, other compound also in cinnamon and cassia


Cinnamaldehyde l.jpg

  • Toxic in large quantities, not a carcinogen

  • Can be used as an insecticide, fungicide

  • Can be synthesized, but it’s cheaper to extract it from the bark

Nutmeg tree l.jpg
Nutmeg tree

  • Myristicafragrans; in a family related to cinnamon, star anise (Magnoliales)

  • Native to Indonesia

  • Later than cloves—reported from Constantinople by 800 AD

  • Portuguese controlled from 1514 until about 1600

  • Dutch took over for two centuries

  • French started a plantation in Mauritius in 1770

Myristica fragrans l.jpg
Myristica fragrans

  • A dioecious species

  • Fruits dried and eaten locally

  • Like dried ginger, also made into jam

Nutmeg and mace l.jpg
Nutmeg and mace

  • From one plant

  • Outer part of seed makes mace, inner part makes nutmeg (musky nut, Arabic mesk)

  • Nutmeg aroma and flavor volatilizes quickly, hence the grater

Constituents l.jpg

  • Essential oils (pressed from seed) used in a variety of cosmetics and foods, including Coca-cola (perhaps)

  • Myristicin is the main odor-flavor compound

    • Also found in parsley family

    • A hallucinogen

    • Used in insecticides, acaricides

Mustard seed l.jpg
Mustard seed

  • Several species, today mostly Sinapis alba (white or yellow mustard) and Brassica juncea (brown or Chinese mustard)

  • Crucifer (mustard) family

  • Cheapest of spices

  • Ancient important European and Mediterranean spice

  • Mustard powder not developed until 1720, “made mustard” only until then

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  • Dijon mustard sinalbin)

    • First commercial factory

    • Brown mustard, juice of unripened grapes, wine vinegar

  • English mustard

    • Really hot, has spices and tumeric

  • Chinese mustard

    • Made from powder, lasts about an hour

  • American mustard

    • White mustard, it’s yellow because of tumeric, very mild

Tumeric l.jpg
Tumeric sinalbin)

  • Curcuma longa, in the ginger family

  • Long history in India

  • Color and flavor

  • Contains volatile oil curcumin

  • Recent interest in medicinal use

Horseradish l.jpg
Horseradish sinalbin)

  • Armoracia lapathifolia and A. rusticana

  • Also old, European also in the mustard family

  • Contains sinigrin, releases mustard oil-type compound when crushed

Wasabi l.jpg
Wasabi sinalbin)

  • Eutrema wasabi (used to be called Wasabia japonica)

  • Ground root

  • Not related to horseradish, but it is a mustard

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Wasabi farm in Japan

How do these mustard oils work l.jpg
How do these mustard oils work? sinalbin)

Jordt SE, Bautista DM, Chuang HH, McKemy DD, Zygmunt PM, Hogestatt ED, Meng ID, Julius D.Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-2140, USA.Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors.

Fennel l.jpg
Fennel sinalbin)

  • Foeniculum vulgare

  • Parsley family

  • Called marathon in ancient Greek

  • European, seed and stalk, three kinds!

  • Sweet fennel most common for seed

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Star anise l.jpg
Star anise sinalbin)

  • Tree called Illicium verum

  • Primitive family, related to Magnoliaceae

  • Not known in wild, assumed to be from China

  • Mainly used in Chinese cooking

  • Main commercial source of anethole

Star anise24 l.jpg
Star anise sinalbin)

  • Also a source of shikimic acid

  • Used to make Tamiflu

  • Shikimic acid can also be made by genetically engineered bacteria

Allspice l.jpg
Allspice sinalbin)

  • Pimenta dioica

  • Called “pimento” in much of the world

  • Dried unripe berry

  • Still grown mainly in Jamaica

  • Myrtle family (like cloves)

  • Contains eugenol, some other components also found in cloves

Allspice26 l.jpg
Allspice sinalbin)

  • Never had the same importance as cinnamon and cloves

  • Used in cooking

  • Found in men’s cosmetics

Vanilla orchid l.jpg
Vanilla orchid sinalbin)

  • Vanilla planifolia

  • New world (Mexico)

  • Wasn’t commercial until artificial pollination discovered

The other pepper l.jpg
The other pepper sinalbin)

  • Capsicum annuum and others

  • Discovered by Columbus

  • Important part of Mexican diet

  • At least 9000 yrs old

  • Many varieties

  • Fruits very high in vitamin C

  • Birds not sensitive

  • Heat measure in Scoville units

Capsaicin l.jpg
Capsaicin sinalbin)

  • Interacts with a receptor called the vanilloid receptor subtype 1

  • An ion channel receptor, provides sensitivity to heat, cold

  • Not very volatile at all; extremely stable Can be used as a pain reliever, for neuralgia, other types of pain

Trigeminal nerve receptors l.jpg
Trigeminal nerve receptors sinalbin)

  • Cranial nerves in tongue, oral cavity

  • Respond to hot, cold, tingling

  • It’s a warning system

  • “Irritant” sensation

  • Detects “pain” messages meant to deter animals

  • Ion channel receptor

  • Why do we like to eat this stuff?

Licorice l.jpg
Licorice sinalbin)

  • Glycyrrhiza glabra

  • Root of a legume

  • Taste similar to anise seed and fennel

  • Mediterranean plant, though there is an American relative

Slide32 l.jpg

  • Active ingredient is glycyrrhizin sinalbin)

  • Used as a flavoring agent in candies, drugs

  • Much sweeter than sugar, but not used as a sweetener in US (can be used in Japan)

  • Using too much can cause hypertension