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Chapter 2. Computer Hardware. The System Unit. Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data Sometimes called the chassis. The System Unit. What are common components inside the system unit? Processor Memory Adapter cards Sound card Video card

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Chapter 2 l.jpg

Chapter 2

Computer Hardware


The system unit l.jpg
The System Unit

  • Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

    • Sometimes called thechassis

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware






The system unit7 l.jpg
The System Unit

  • What are common components inside the system unit?

    • Processor

    • Memory

    • Adapter cards

      • Sound card

      • Video card

    • Drive bays

    • Power supply

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Motherboard

  • Main circuit board in system unit

  • Contains adapter cards, processor chips, andmemory chips

  • Also calledsystem board

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Chips

  • Smallpiece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched

  • Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current

  • Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board

  • Most important chip is the Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


    Processor l.jpg

    Processor

    Control Unit

    Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

    InstructionsDataInformation

    InstructionsDataInformation

    Processor

    • Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer

    Control Unit

    Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

    • Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer

    Memory

    InputDevices

    OutputDevices

    Data

    Information

    • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations

    • In a PC, called the microprocessor

    StorageDevices

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Microprocessor Basics

    • Serial processing

      • Pipelining

    • Parallel processing

    • Multi-core processor

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Today’s Microprocessors

    The CPU is the most important part of your computer…it affects the speed and price of your computer more than any other one component! It’s the computer’s ‘brain’.

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Moore’s Law – Gordon Moore in 1965 Prediction

    • Continued increase in technological innovations causes transistor densities in an integrated circuit to double every 18 months, doubling speed of processors every 18 months

    • Will stop in next decade due to inherent limits in silicon.

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


    Machine cycle l.jpg

    Memory

    Processor

    ALU

    Control Unit

    Machine Cycle

    • Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle

    Step 1. FetchObtain program instruction or data item from memory

    Step 2. DecodeTranslate instruction into commands

    Step 4. StoreWrite result to memory

    Step 3. ExecuteCarry out command

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Processor

    • What are dual-core and multi-core processors?

      • A dual-core processor is a single chip that contains two separate processors

      • A multi-core processor is a chip with two or more separate processors

      • Each processor on a dual-core/multi-core chip generally runs at a slower clock speed, but increase overall performance

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Processor

    • What are heat sinks, heat pipes, and liquid cooling?

      • Heat sink—component with fins that cools processor

      • Heat pipe—smaller device for notebook computers

      • Liquid cooling—uses a continuous flow of fluids to transfer heat away

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Random Access Memory

    • Random Access Memory (RAM) is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Memory

    What is random access memory (RAM)?

    Memory chips that can be read from and written to by processor

    Also called main memory or primary storage

    Most RAM is volatile, it is lost when computer’s power is turned off

    The more RAM a computer has, the faster it responds

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Memory

    dual inline memory module

    • Resides on small circuit board calledmemory module

    • Memory slotson motherboard hold memory modules

    • How much RAM do you need?

    memory slot

    memory chip

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Cache

    • Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data

    • Also called memory cache

    • L1 cache built into processor

    • L2 cache slower but has larger capacity

    • L2 advanced transfer cache is faster, built directly on processor chip

    • L3 cache is separate from processor chip on motherboard (L3 is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache)

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Read-Only Memory

    • Type of memory that holds the computer’s startup routine (ROM BIOS)

      • Permanent and non-volatile

    • Tells the computer how to access the hard disk and find the operating system—then load the op system into RAM

    ROM-BIOS:

    Start-up instructions

    Memory chips that store permanent data and instructions

    Nonvolatile memory, it is not lost when computer’s power is turned off

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

    What is an adapter card?

    • Enhances system unit or provides connections to external devices called peripherals

    • Also called an expansion card

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Expansion Slots

    • An opening, or socket, on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card

    • With Plug and Play, the computer automatically configures cardsand other devices as you install them

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Ports and Connectors

    • A port connects external devices to system unit

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Ports and Connectors

    • What are different types of connectors?

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Ports and Connectors

    What is a serial port?

    • Transmits one bit of data at a time

    • Connects slow-speed devices, such as mouse, keyboard, modem

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Ports and Connectors

    What is a parallel port?

    • Connects devices that can transfer more than one bit at a time, such as a printer

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

    p. 208 Fig. 4-31


    Ports and connectors28 l.jpg

    Single USB port can be used to attach multiple peripherals in a daisy chain

    Third USB device connects to second USB device, and so on

    PCs typically have six to eight USB ports on front or back of the system unit

    Second USB device connects to first USB device

    First USB device connects to USB port on computer

    Ports and Connectors

    What are USB ports?

    USB (universal serial bus) port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector type

    USB 2.0

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


    Ports and connectors29 l.jpg
    Ports and Connectors

    What are FireWire ports?

    • Connects multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds

    • Allows you to connect up to 63 devices together

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Ports and Connectors

    What are special-purpose ports?

    • Allow users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data to wireless devices

    • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) port

    • eSATA (external Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) port

    • SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) port

    • IrDA (Infrared Data Association) port

    • Bluetooth port

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Bays

    What is a bay?

    • Opening inside system unit used to install additional equipment

    • Drive bays typically hold disk drives

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


    Power supply l.jpg

    External peripherals might use an AC adapter, which is an external power supply

    ConvertsAC PowerintoDC Power

    Fan keepssystem unit components cool

    Power Supply

    • What is a power supply?

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Mobile Computers and Devices

    • What ports are on a notebook computer?

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Mobile Computers and Devices

    • What ports and slots are on a tablet PC?

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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    Keeping Your Computer Clean

    • Over time, the system unit collects dust – even in a clean environment

    • Preventative maintenance requires a few basic products:

    Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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