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SECTION A 2 SECTION B - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 2. Computer Hardware. The System Unit. Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data Sometimes called the chassis. The System Unit. What are common components inside the system unit? Processor Memory Adapter cards Sound card Video card

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Computer Hardware

the system unit
The System Unit
  • Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data
    • Sometimes called thechassis

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

the system unit7
The System Unit
  • What are common components inside the system unit?
    • Processor
    • Memory
    • Adapter cards
      • Sound card
      • Video card
    • Drive bays
    • Power supply

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

motherboard
Motherboard
  • Main circuit board in system unit
  • Contains adapter cards, processor chips, andmemory chips
  • Also calledsystem board

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

chips
Chips
  • Smallpiece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched
    • Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current
  • Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board
  • Most important chip is the Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

processor

Processor

Control Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

InstructionsDataInformation

InstructionsDataInformation

Processor
  • Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer

Control Unit

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

  • Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer

Memory

InputDevices

OutputDevices

Data

Information

  • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations
  • In a PC, called the microprocessor

StorageDevices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

microprocessor basics
Microprocessor Basics
  • Serial processing
    • Pipelining
  • Parallel processing
  • Multi-core processor

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

today s microprocessors
Today’s Microprocessors

The CPU is the most important part of your computer…it affects the speed and price of your computer more than any other one component! It’s the computer’s ‘brain’.

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

moore s law gordon moore in 1965 prediction
Moore’s Law – Gordon Moore in 1965 Prediction
  • Continued increase in technological innovations causes transistor densities in an integrated circuit to double every 18 months, doubling speed of processors every 18 months
  • Will stop in next decade due to inherent limits in silicon.

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

machine cycle

Memory

Processor

ALU

Control Unit

Machine Cycle
  • Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle

Step 1. FetchObtain program instruction or data item from memory

Step 2. DecodeTranslate instruction into commands

Step 4. StoreWrite result to memory

Step 3. ExecuteCarry out command

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

processor15
Processor
  • What are dual-core and multi-core processors?
    • A dual-core processor is a single chip that contains two separate processors
    • A multi-core processor is a chip with two or more separate processors
    • Each processor on a dual-core/multi-core chip generally runs at a slower clock speed, but increase overall performance

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

processor16
Processor
  • What are heat sinks, heat pipes, and liquid cooling?
    • Heat sink—component with fins that cools processor
    • Heat pipe—smaller device for notebook computers
    • Liquid cooling—uses a continuous flow of fluids to transfer heat away

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

random access memory
Random Access Memory
  • Random Access Memory (RAM) is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

memory
Memory

What is random access memory (RAM)?

Memory chips that can be read from and written to by processor

Also called main memory or primary storage

Most RAM is volatile, it is lost when computer’s power is turned off

The more RAM a computer has, the faster it responds

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

memory19
Memory

dual inline memory module

  • Resides on small circuit board calledmemory module
  • Memory slotson motherboard hold memory modules
  • How much RAM do you need?

memory slot

memory chip

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

cache
Cache
  • Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data
  • Also called memory cache
  • L1 cache built into processor
  • L2 cache slower but has larger capacity
  • L2 advanced transfer cache is faster, built directly on processor chip
  • L3 cache is separate from processor chip on motherboard (L3 is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

read only memory
Read-Only Memory
  • Type of memory that holds the computer’s startup routine (ROM BIOS)
    • Permanent and non-volatile
  • Tells the computer how to access the hard disk and find the operating system—then load the op system into RAM

ROM-BIOS:

Start-up instructions

Memory chips that store permanent data and instructions

Nonvolatile memory, it is not lost when computer’s power is turned off

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

expansion slots and adapter cards
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

What is an adapter card?

  • Enhances system unit or provides connections to external devices called peripherals
  • Also called an expansion card

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

expansion slots
Expansion Slots
  • An opening, or socket, on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card
  • With Plug and Play, the computer automatically configures cardsand other devices as you install them

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

ports and connectors
Ports and Connectors
  • A port connects external devices to system unit

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

ports and connectors25
Ports and Connectors
  • What are different types of connectors?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

ports and connectors26
Ports and Connectors

What is a serial port?

  • Transmits one bit of data at a time
  • Connects slow-speed devices, such as mouse, keyboard, modem

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

ports and connectors27
Ports and Connectors

What is a parallel port?

  • Connects devices that can transfer more than one bit at a time, such as a printer

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

p. 208 Fig. 4-31

ports and connectors28

Single USB port can be used to attach multiple peripherals in a daisy chain

Third USB device connects to second USB device, and so on

PCs typically have six to eight USB ports on front or back of the system unit

Second USB device connects to first USB device

First USB device connects to USB port on computer

Ports and Connectors

What are USB ports?

USB (universal serial bus) port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector type

USB 2.0

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

ports and connectors29
Ports and Connectors

What are FireWire ports?

  • Connects multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds
  • Allows you to connect up to 63 devices together

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

ports and connectors30
Ports and Connectors

What are special-purpose ports?

  • Allow users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data to wireless devices
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) port
  • eSATA (external Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) port
  • SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) port
  • IrDA (Infrared Data Association) port
  • Bluetooth port

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

slide31
Bays

What is a bay?

  • Opening inside system unit used to install additional equipment
  • Drive bays typically hold disk drives

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

power supply

External peripherals might use an AC adapter, which is an external power supply

ConvertsAC PowerintoDC Power

Fan keepssystem unit components cool

Power Supply
  • What is a power supply?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

mobile computers and devices
Mobile Computers and Devices
  • What ports are on a notebook computer?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

mobile computers and devices34
Mobile Computers and Devices
  • What ports and slots are on a tablet PC?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

keeping your computer clean
Keeping Your Computer Clean
  • Over time, the system unit collects dust – even in a clean environment
  • Preventative maintenance requires a few basic products:

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

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