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Chapter One. An Introduction to Networking. Let’s Get Acquainted. What is your name and how would you like us to address you? Is this your first networking class? Are you taking any other networking classes? What is your background in networking? Are you a career changer?

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Chapter One

An Introduction

to Networking


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Let’s Get Acquainted

  • What is your name and how would you like us to address you?

  • Is this your first networking class?

  • Are you taking any other networking classes?

  • What is your background in networking?

  • Are you a career changer?

  • Why did you sign up for this class and what are your expectations?

  • Are you interested in any industry certifications such as Net+, MCP, MCSE, or CCNA?

  • What is your next step in technical training and industry certification after finishing this class?


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Objectives

  • List advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing

  • Identify elements of a network

  • Describe several specific uses of a network


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Objectives

  • Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks

  • Identify some of the certifications available to networking professionals

  • Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,” skills to help in succeeding as a networking professional


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Networks and Standalone Computers

  • Network

    • Group of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmission media

    • Networks enable users to share devices and data, collectively called a network’s resources

  • Standalone computer

    • Uses programs and data only from its local disks and is not connected to a network


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Sneakernet

  • Method of sharing data by copying it to a disk and carrying the disk from computer to computer


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Local and Remote Computers

  • Local computer

    • Computer on which user is working

  • Remote computer

    • Computer that user controls or works on via network connection


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Peer-to-Peer Network

  • Computers communicate on single segment of cable and share each other’s data and devices

  • Simple example of a local area network (LAN)


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Local Area Network (LAN)

  • Network of computers and other devices confined to relatively small space

  • LANs involving many computers are usually server-based

    • On a server-based network, special computers (known as servers) process data for and facilitate communication between other computers on the network (known as clients)


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Networking Basics

  • Workstation

    • Computer that typically runs a desktop operating system and connects to a network

  • Client/server architecture

    • Networking model in which clients use central server to share applications, devices, and data


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Networking Basics

  • Client/server network

    • Network based on client/server architecture

  • Network operating system

    • Special software designed to manage data and other resources on a server for a number of clients




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Advantages of Server-Based over Peer-to-Peer Networks

  • User login accounts and passwords can be assigned in one place

  • Access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted

  • Servers are optimized to handle heavy processing loads and dedicated to handling requests from clients

  • Servers can connect more than a handful of computers


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MANs and WANs

  • Metropolitan area network (MAN)

    • Network connecting clients and servers in multiple buildings within limited geographic area

  • Wide area network (WAN)

    • Network that spans large distance and connects two or more LANs

    • The Internet is an example of a very intricate and extensive WAN that spans the globe



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Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Client

    • In addition to referring to a computer on the network, may also refers to human user of client workstation

  • Server

  • Workstation

  • Network interface card (NIC)

    • Enables workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers


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Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks


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Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Network operating system (NOS)

  • Host

    • Server that manages shared resources

  • Node

    • Client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that is identified by a unique identifying number, known as its network address


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Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Topology

    • Physical layout of computer network


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Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Protocol

    • Rules network uses to transfer data

  • Data Packets

    • The distinct units of data transmitted from one computer to another on a network


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Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Addressing

    • Scheme for assigning unique identifying number to every workstation on network

    • The number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network is its address


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Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Transmission media

    • Means through which data are transmitted and received


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How Networks Are Used

  • Services

    • Features provided by a network

      • File and print services

      • Communications services

      • Mail services

      • Internet services

      • Management services


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Network Services

  • File services

    • Refers to capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage space

    • Server that provides file services is called a file server

  • Print services

    • Allows printers to be shared by several users on a network


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Network Services

  • Communications services

    • Allow remote users to connect to a network

      • Remote user

        • Person working on a computer in a different geographical location from the LAN’s server

    • Communications server

      • Server that runs communications services

      • Also referred to as access servers and remote access servers


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Network Services

  • Mail services

    • Coordinate storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network

      • Gateway

        • Combination of software and hardware enabling two different kinds of networks to exchange data

  • Internet services

    • Enable networks to communicate with the Internet


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Network Services

  • Management services

    • Centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the network

    • Numerous services fall under category of network management


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Important Management Services

  • Traffic monitoring and control

    • Traffic

      • Data transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given time

    • Segment

      • Part of LAN that is logically separated from other parts of LAN and that shares fixed amount of traffic capacity


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Important Management Services

  • Load balancing

    • Distributing process activity evenly across a network so that no single device is overwhelmed

  • Hardware diagnosis and failure alert

    • Determining when a network component fails and automatically notifying network administrators through e-mail or pager


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Important Management Services

  • Asset management

    • Collecting and storing data on number and types of software and hardware assets in an organization’s network

  • License tracking

    • Determining how many copies of a single application are currently in use on a network


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Important Management Services

  • Security auditing

    • Evaluating what security measures are currently in force and notifying network administrator if a security breach occurs

  • Software distribution

    • Automatically transferring data file or program from the server to a client on the network


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Important Management Services

  • Address management

    • Centrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LAN

  • Backup and restoration of data

    • Backing up

      • Copying critical files to a secure storage area

    • Restoring

      • Retrieving data if original files are lost or deleted


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Becoming a Network Professional

  • Mastering the technical challenges

  • Developing your “soft skills”

  • Pursuing certification

  • Finding a job in networking

  • Joining professional associations


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Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server software

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server hardware

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client software

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client hardware


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Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Understanding the characteristics of different transmission media

  • Understanding network design

  • Understanding network protocols

  • Understanding how users interact with the network


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Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals:

    • Network security

    • Internet and intranet design

    • Network management

    • Voice/data integration

    • Remote and mobile computing


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Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals (cont.):

    • Data integrity and fault tolerance

    • In-depth knowledge of Microsoft networking products

    • In-depth knowledge of NetWare networking products

    • In-depth knowledge of router configuration and management


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Developing Your “Soft Skills”

  • Skills not easily measured but important to a networking career:

    • Customer relations

    • Oral and written communications

    • Dependability

    • Teamwork

    • Leadership abilities


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Pursuing Certification

  • Certification

    • Process of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passing a series of exams

  • Computer Technology Association (CompTIA)

    • An association that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionals


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Pursuing Certification

  • A+

    • Certification established by CompTIA

    • Verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and management

  • Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)

    • Certification established by Microsoft

    • Demonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft’s products


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Pursuing Certification

  • Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)

    • Certification established by Novell

    • Demonstrates in-depth understanding of Novell’s networking software

  • Network+ (Net+)

    • Certification established by CompTIA

    • Verifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skills


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Pursuing Certification

  • Benefits of becoming certified include:

    • Better salary

    • Greater opportunities

    • Professional respect

    • Access to better support


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Finding a Job in Networking

  • Search the Web

  • Read the paper

  • Visit a career center

  • Network

  • Attend career fairs



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Joining Professional Associations

  • Benefits can include:

    • Connecting with people who have similar interests

    • Providing new opportunities for learning

    • Allowing access to specialized information

    • Giving you tangible assets such as free goods



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Chapter Summary

  • A Network is a group of computers or other devices connected by some type of transmission media

  • Networks may be small or large, connecting computers in one office or across the world

  • All networks offer advantages relative to the use of standalone computers

  • Simplest form of a network still used today connects a handful of computers through one cable and uses peer-to-peer communication


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Chapter Summary

  • A LAN is a network of computers and other devices confined to a relatively small space

  • A WAN is a network connecting two or more geographically distinct LANs

  • All server-based networks share some common elements

  • The physical layout of a computer network is called a topology

  • Network protocols are rules the network uses to transfer data


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Chapter Summary

  • File and print services provide foundation for networking

  • Communications services allow remote users to connect to the network

  • Mail services allow networks users to exchange and store e-mail

  • Internet services enable organizations to connect to the Internet

  • Network management services centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on network


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Chapter Summary

  • Networking professionals are in demand

  • Pursuing certification can benefit you in many ways

  • Hone your soft skills

  • Numerous resources are available in searching for networking positions

  • Joining associations can benefit your professional growth


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