Microsoft Exchange 2000 Database Recovery
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Microsoft Exchange 2000 Database Recovery - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Microsoft Exchange 2000 Database Recovery Mike Lee Support Professional Product Support Services Microsoft Corporation. What We Will Cover. Important differences between Exchange 5.5 and Exchange 2000 Fundamental principles of Exchange 2000 data preservation and recovery Offline recovery

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Microsoft Exchange 2000 Database RecoveryMike LeeSupport ProfessionalProduct Support ServicesMicrosoft Corporation

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What We Will Cover

  • Important differences between Exchange 5.5 and Exchange 2000

  • Fundamental principles of Exchange 2000 data preservation and recovery

  • Offline recovery

  • Highlights: SRS, KMS, Active Directory™, IIS metabase recovery

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  • Windows® 2000 global Active Directory replaces the Exchange 5.5 server-centric directory database.

  • Mailboxes are attributes, not objects.

  • Public folder and other permissions are granted through Windows ACLs, not Exchange DNs.

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  • Administrative Groups instead of Sites

  • Storage Groups (4 x 5 = 20 databases)

  • General purpose public folders

  • Database mounting

  • Streaming database

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Fundamental Principles

  • System-centric versus server-centric view.

  • A problem in Active Directory can bring down the Exchange system.

  • Exchange disaster recovery and Active Directory disaster recovery teams should be closely integrated.

  • An unrecoverable disaster to your Certification Authority or Active Directory will render KMS unusable.

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Exchange Data Storage

  • In Exchange 5.5, you can reconstruct an entire server from:

    • Database backups

    • A few registry settings (sometimes not even needed)

    • In transit queued messages

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Exchange Data Storage (2)

  • In Exchange 2000, you may need all this to get your server going again (worst case):

    • Replacement hardware, installation disks, system configuration logs.

    • Full drive backups

    • System state backup (including metabase and system certificates)

    • Active Directory backup

    • Exchange database backups (IS, KMS, SRS)

    • Certification Authority backup

  • or . . . .

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Exchange Data Storage (3)

  • If only the local server is involved in the disaster:

    • Run SETUP /disasterrecovery

    • Restore databases

  • SETUP /disasterrecovery reinstalls the server based on the configuration information in Active Directory.

  • If only the Exchange server is involved in the disaster, recovery is often simpler than in Exchange 5.5.

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New Backup Capabilities and Differences

  • KMS and SRS databases can be backed up online.

  • No directory backups (AD is the directory).

  • Concurrent backup of different storage groups.

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New Restore Capabilities and Differences

  • Services must be started, but databases not mounted to restore.

  • Restore in Progress registry key replaced with Restore.env file.

  • Hard recovery is manually triggered, not automatic. Select the Last Backup Set check box before restoring.

  • Restored log and patch files are restored to a Temp directory, not the running log directory.

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Offline Database Recoveries

  • You can restore Exchange information store databases from one server to another server.

  • The usual reason for doing this is to recover a single mailbox after a user has inadvertently purged an important item.

  • It is also great recovery practice, because it is the same thing as having to recover after losing everything except the information store backups.

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Recovery Server Setup in Exchange 5.5

  • Install Exchange on a separate server (but can be on the same network).

  • Use the same Organization and Site names as the production site, but don’t join the real site during setup.

  • Service Accounts do not have to match.

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Recovery Server Setup in Exchange 2000

  • Install a new Active Directory forest (but it can be on the same network).

  • Set up DNS (if necessary).

  • Install Exchange 2000, using the same Organization name as the production organization.

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Information Store Recovery in Exchange 5.5

  • Restore databases to the offline recovery server.

  • Run DS/IS consistency adjustor to populate the directory from the mailbox tables.

  • Use a client application, such as Outlook® or Exmerge to access mailbox data.

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Information Store Recovery in Exchange 2000

  • Change the Administrative Group name to match the production Administrative Group

  • Change or add logical database and storage group names to match too.

  • Fix legacyExchangeDN values as necessary.

  • Restore databases.

  • Generate Active Directory user accounts and connect mailboxes to them.

  • Use a client application, such as Outlook or Exmerge to access mailbox data.

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Setting Up DNS on a Recovery Server

  • Install DNS from the Windows 2000 CD.

  • Run IPCONFIG /ALL and write down your current DNS server and your own IP address.

  • In your Network and Dial-up Connection properties, change your DNS server to your own IP address.

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Setting Up DNS on a Recovery Server (2)

  • Run the DNS management console (Dnsmgmt.msc)

  • Configure a standard primary forward lookup zone for your domain. The zone name should be the same as your recovery server domain name.

  • On the zone’s properties, set Allow Dynamic Updates to Yes.

  • On the server properties in Dnsmgmt, configure your previous DNS server as a forwarder.

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Setting Up DNS on a Recovery Server (3)

  • Run IPCONFIG /ALL to be sure changes have taken effect.

  • Cycle the Netlogon service to speed up registry of the SRV records.

  • Inspect the forward lookup zone to be sure SRV records have actually been registered.

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Changing the Administrative Group Name

  • Switch the recovery server to Native mode, on the properties of the organization object.

  • Right-click the Administrative Group object, and click Rename.

  • Remember—this doesn’t change the legacyExchangeDN!

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The legacyExchangeDN

  • Maps Active Directory objects to corresponding Exchange 5.5 objects.

  • Looks like:


  • Never changes after it is set, even if you change the Administrative Group or Organization names.

  • Databases cannot start unless legacyExchangeDN values are correct.

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legacyExchangeDN Value Generation

  • Install new Exchange 2000 organization, legacyExchangeDN is:

    /o=Organization/ou=First Administrative Group

  • Upgrade Exchange 5.5 organization, legacyExchangeDN is:

    /o=Organization/ou=5.5 Site Name

  • Install recovery server, legacyExchangeDN is:

    /o=Organization/ou=First Administrative Group

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legacyExchangeDN Mismatches

  • If restoring a database from an upgraded organization to a recovery server.

  • If restoring a database from a second Administrative Group in a “pure” Exchange 2000 organization.

  • Recovery server legacyExchangeDN value will always be /ou=First Administrative Group, no matter what the “real” legacyExchangeDN is.

  • If legacyExchangeDNs do not match, databases will not start.

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Getting Around the legacyExchangeDN Problem

  • Install a second recovery server with the correct naming.

  • Install Exchange 5.5 on the recovery server with the correct naming, and then upgrade.

  • Change the legacyExchangeDN values to the correct naming.

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What Is the legacyExchangeDN Stem in Your Organization?

  • In your production organization, run this command:

    LDIFDE –f CON –d "CN=Headquarters,

    CN=Administrative Groups,CN=Corp1,

    CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,


    –l legacyExchangeDN –p Base

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What Is the legacyExchangeDN Stem in your Organization? (2)

  • You will get output that looks like this:

    dn: CN=Headquarters,CN=Administrative Groups,CN=Corp1,CN=Microsoft Exchange, CN=Services,CN=Configuration,dc=mycorp,dc=com

    changetype: add

    legacyExchangeDN: /O=Microsoft/OU=Headquarters

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN

  • On the recovery server, run this command:

    ldifde -f e:\legacy.ldf -p subtree

    -l legacyexchangedn -d "CN=Microsoft Exchange,


    -r "(legacyexchangedn=*First*)"

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN (2)

Output from the previous command will be in the

file Legacy.ldf, and each record will look like


dn: distinguished name of the object

changetype: add

legacyExchangeDN: current value

<blank line>

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN (3)

  • You must rework each record so that it can be imported.

  • Use Word or a plain text editor that supports across line break find and replace.

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN (4)

  • Find/ou=First Administrative Groupand replace with:/ou=right administrative group name

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN (5)

  • Find<line break><line break>and replace with:<line break><dash><line break><line break>

  • Hint: In Word, search for ^p^p and replace with ^p-^p^p

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN (6)

  • Find:Changetype: add<linebreak>and replace with:Changetype: modify<linebreak>replace: legacyExchangeDN<linebreak>

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN (7)

  • If editing the file in Microsoft Word, don’t forget to save it as plain text.

  • After editing, each record in the file should look like this:

    dn: distinguished name of the object to be modified

    changetype: modify

    replace: legacyExchangeDN

    legacyExchangeDN: new value


    <blank line>

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Fixing the legacyExchangeDN (8)

  • Import the modified Legacy.ldf file using this command:

    ldifde –i –f legacy.ldf

  • Investigate any import errors: all modifications must succeed!

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Restoring Databases

  • Restart all Exchange services. Existing databases will fail to mount if the legacyExchangeDN has been changed.

  • Before restoring databases from your production system, you must select the check box for “This database can be overwritten by a restore” on each database’s properties.

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Accessing Mailboxes

  • Create an Active Directory account for each mailbox you wish to open.

  • In Exchange System Manager (ESM) console, right-click the Mailboxes object and run the Cleanup Agent.

  • Right-click a mailbox with an X next to it, and click Reconnect.

  • Access the mailbox contents with a client application or save contents to a .pst file with Exmerge.

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SRS and KMS Database Recovery

  • Semi-running mode.

  • Similar to Information Store recovery.

  • Must also select the “Last Backup Set” check box to run hard recovery.

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SRS Recovery If the SRS Database Is Lost

  • Install another Exchange 2000 server in the site/administrative group or go to another Exchange 2000 server in the same admin group.

  • Run ESM from the console of the new server.

  • In Tools, right-click Site Replication Services, and install an SRS on the new server.

  • Delete the original SRS.

  • Re-create the original SRS (if needed).

  • Delete the other SRS, and then remove the other server (if needed).

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IIS Metabase Recovery

  • Metabase contains virtual server and other Exchange protocol configuration information.

  • Most of the information in the metabase is duplicated in Active Directory, and is re-created automatically during /disasterrecovery setup.

  • Exception: NNTP information.

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IIS Metabase Recovery (2)

  • The metabase can’t be transported to a different server and recovered.

  • If security/certificate information for the server installation is lost, the metabase can’t be restored.

  • Back up the metabase along with system state information on the server.

  • Additional backups of just the metabase file can be made in the IIS Administrator console.

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Active Directory Recovery

  • Each domain controller in a given domain serves as a real-time backup of the others.

  • Have three domain controllers per domain for disaster recovery redundancy.

  • It may be easier to rebuild a single domain controller than to restore it.

  • Coordinate with Active Directory administrators on disaster recovery plans.

  • Make sure Exchange disaster recovery administrators have appropriate AD permissions.

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KMS Recovery Requirements

  • Must have .P12 file backup of the root certificate for the Certification Authorities, and know the password to the file.

  • Must have KMS database backup.

  • Must know KMS database startup password.

  • Must know KMS administrator passwords.

  • Must have access to AD accounts for KMS administrators.

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KMS Best Practices

  • Before deploying KMS, think very hard about your Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) requirements. Backing out and doing it over is very difficult.

  • Make sure that your administrative framework for PKI and KMS can survive changes in personnel, and that backups are very secure.

  • Have thorough and expert knowledge of PKI before deploying KMS. Never just wing it.