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Harvard Referencing For Dance students Why is Harvard referencing needed? Evidence of background reading Acknowledge the research of others Avoid accusations of plagiarism Easy to trace the background research used Helps other researchers Plagiarism is…

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Harvard referencing l.jpg

Harvard Referencing

For Dance students


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Why is Harvard referencing needed?

  • Evidence of background reading

  • Acknowledge the research of others

  • Avoid accusations of plagiarism

  • Easy to trace the background research used

  • Helps other researchers


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Plagiarism is…

"the substantial unacknowledged incorporation in a student's work of material derived from the work (published or unpublished) of another. "Work" includes internet sources."

(Leeds Metropolitan University, 2001)


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How does referencing work?

There are 2 elements to referencing other people’s work:

  • In-text citation

    In the body of the text or in the middle of your essay or report, when you refer to someone’s ideas

  • Full reference in the bibliography

    At the back of your work when you list everything you have referred to in full


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Citing in the text – direct quotes

  • Name, Year & Page number appear in brackets:

    ‘The media has a role in defining what we think of as a natural….it helps to map out who we think we are’ (Root 2001, p.12)


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Citing in the text - paraphrasing

Author’s surname and year of publication in brackets:

Liebert and Baron (1997) concluded in a laboratory situation, that watching a violent programme or scene made children more willing to be aggressors.

However, other researches have concluded that television has little or no discernible influence over the viewer (Bulmer, 1992).


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Citing in the text – multiple authors

  • 3 or fewer authors:

    Cutler, Williams & Williams (1989)

  • 4 or more authors:

    Matlock et al. (1996)


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The bibliography

  • Alphabetical list at the end of your work

  • The bibliography gives the FULL reference

  • The following formulas are to make sure that you do not miss out a crucial fact and then fail to trace that work again


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Book

  • Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author (usually an organisation)

  • Year of publication in round brackets

  • Title (this should include the subtitle) - in bold, italics or underlined, followed by a full stop.

  • If not the first edition, 2nd ed., 3rd ed. etc.

  • Series and volume number (if any) followed by a full stop.

  • Place of publication followed by a colon:

  • Publisher followed by a full stop.


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Book example

  • In-text citation:

    This theory is explored in detail by Adair (2007).

  • Full reference:

    Adair, C. (2007) Dancing the black question:

    the Phoenix dance company phenomenon.

    London: Dance Books.


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Some examples

One author:

  • Allen, D. (2000) Performing Chekhov. London: Routledge.

    Two authors:

  • Oddey, A. & White, C. (2001) The potentials of space: the theoryand practice of scenography and performance. Bristol: Intellect.

    Three authors:

  • Santelli, R., George-Warren, H. & Brown, J. (2001) American roots music. New York: Abrams.

    Four and more authors:

  • Nettl, B. et al (1998-2002) The Garland encyclopedia of world music. New York: Garland.

    Editors:

  • Aston, E. & Harris, G. eds. (2006) Feminist futures?: theatre, performance, theory. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Series:

  • Banes, S. & Lepecki, A. (2006) The senses in performance. Worlds of performance. London: Routledge.


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Chapter in a book

  • Author of chapter/section

  • Year of publication in round brackets

  • Title of chapter/section – followed by a full stop.

  • The word In:

  • Editor(s) of collected work followed by ed(s).

  • Title of collected work – underlined, in bold, or in italics and followed by a full stop.

  • Place of publication – followed by a colon:

  • Publisher – followed by a comma,

  • Page numbers of section referred to – followed by a full stop.


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Chapter in a book - example

Banes, S. (2001) Choreographic methods of the Judson Dance Theatre. In: Dils, A. & Albright, A.C. eds. Moving history/dancingcultures: a dance history reader, pp. 350-361. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyn University Press.


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Journal article

  • Author(s) or editor(s)

  • Year of publication in round brackets

  • Title of the article followed by a full stop.

  • Title of the journal - bold, in italics or underlined, followed by a comma

  • Volume number

  • Part number in round brackets, followed by a comma if no month or season

  • Month or season if any, followed by a comma,

  • Page numbers of the article, followed by a full stop.


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Journal example

  • In-text citation:

    Abrams (2008) refers to the ‘personal relationship’ built up with the artists when watching dance over a number of years.

  • Full reference

    Abrams, J. (2008) The contemporary moment of dance: restaging recent classics. PAJ: the journal of performance and art, 90, pp. 42-51.


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Electronic journal

  • Author(s) or editor(s)

  • Year of publication in round brackets

  • Title of article followed by a full stop.

  • Title of the journal - bold, in italics or underlined

  • The word Internet in square brackets, followed by a comma,

  • Volume number

  • Part number in round brackets, followed by a comma,

  • Page number(s) followed by a full stop.

  • The words Available from, followed by a colon

  • The url (the Internet address) within chevrons

  • The word 'Accessed' and the date on which you viewed the article, in square brackets, followed by a full stop.


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Electronic journal example

  • In-text citation:

    Ballets Russes influenced perceptions of dance (Jowitt, 2009).

    Full reference:

  • Jowitt, D. (2009) The Ballets Russes revolution. Dance magazine [Internet], 83 (2), pp. 26-30. Available from <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ibh&AN=36404011&site=ehost-live> [Accessed 26 February, 2009].


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Website

  • Author or editor

  • Year in brackets

  • Title - bold, in italics or underlined

  • The word Internet in square brackets.

  • Place of publication followed by a colon

  • Publisher followed by a full stop.

  • The words Available from followed by a colon

  • The Internet address (url) in chevrons

  • The word Accessed and the date on which the web page was viewed, in square brackets followed by a full stop.


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Website example – with an author

  • In-text:

    Schall (2009) points out that Sue Nye’s work as a choreographer is underpinned by her professional performing career.

  • Full reference:

    Schall, A. (2009) Featured choreographer – Sue Nye [Internet]. London: Dance UK. Available from <http://www.danceuk.org/metadot/index.pl?id=25110&isa=Category&op=show> [Accessed 9 March 2009].


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DVDs and videos

  • Title – underlined, in bold, or in italics and followed by a full stop

  • Year in round brackets

  • Subsidiary originator (this is optional but the director is preferred – note that the director’s name is not written surname first) – followed by a full stop.

  • Place of production – followed by a colon:

  • Organisation

  • Medium and then format – separated by a colon, in square brackets and followed by a full stop


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DVD and video examples

  • Dancing nation: four people, four stories, four communities. (2001) Directed by Rosemary Lee & Peter Anderson. Leicester: Foundation for Community Dance [video:DVD].

  • Signal. (2005) Choreographed by Henri Oguike. Leeds: Phoenix Dance [video:VHS].


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Live dance performance

  • Choreographer

  • Year of performance (in round brackets)

  • Title of performance (in bold, italics or underlined, and followed by a full stop)

  • The dance company, followed by a full stop.

  • Venue and place where performance was presented

  • The day, month and year that you viewed the performance, followed by a full stop (in square brackets).


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Live performance example

  • In-text citation:

    The performance of Tharp's work was packed with exhuberant energy (In the upper room, 2007).

  • Reference list:

    Tharp, T. (2007) In the upper room. American Ballet Theatre. Sadler’s Wells, London [14 February 2007].


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Further help

York St John Harvard Guide to Referencing

- access on the York St John website

<http://www.yorksj.ac.uk/library/guide/citing/index.aspx>

For further help contact Lottie Alexander at [email protected]


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