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Georgia State University Series: Early Intervention with Children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Part 1, Presentation 5 July 2001. Deaf Culture. Dr. Easterbrooks Group 1 Week 2. What defines “Deaf Culture?”.
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Part 1, Presentation 5
“Socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions and all other products of human works and thoughts.”
(American Heritage Dictionary, third edition, 1992)
People who are Deaf form a community, finding within it not just social interaction, but emotional support. It is not so much a geographical community, as one held together by a common language: American SignLanguage.
of "Deaf Culture?"
Thomas H. Gallaudet
ASL- American Sign Language (ASL) is a manual language distinct from spoken English. It has its own syntax and grammar, and is the second most common language in the United States. Its history began in France in the late 1700’s, and brought to the U.S. in 1815 by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc. ASL is used as an expressive language, and written English is used to communicate with the hearing world. This communication method is also referred to as ASL/ESL or Bilingual/Bicultural. Like any living language, ASL continues to evolve.
·Auditory-Verbal - a program which emphasizes auditory skills. Children are taught to develop listening skills through individual therapy focusing on using any remaining or residual hearing with the help of amplification. Because this method is designed to encourage a child’s listening ability, no manual communication is used and the child is discouraged from using any visual cues.
·Cochlear Implant - a form of assistive device for the deaf which requires surgery to implant a device which is then connected to a receiver outside the ear. It allows people to experience the sensation of sound, but does not restore normal hearing. The person can hear environmental sounds better, and hear rhythms and patterns of speech and use speech reading or lip reading more effectively.
·Cued Speech – a visual communication system using eight hand shapes or cues to represent different sounds of speech. The cues are used while talking to make spoken language clear to the person who is deaf or hard of hearing. The cues help the listener distinguish between sounds that look the same on the lips.
·deaf - with a lowercase “d”, this term refers to individuals who have a medical/audio logical condition of having little or no hearing. This term does not have any implication of the individual’s cultural or community involvement.
·Deaf - with an uppercase “D”, this term refers to individuals who identify themselves as Deaf and share a culture and community, not just a medical condition. Deaf people don’t want to be fixed and would not prefer to hear. Usually their preferred mode of communication is Sign Language.
·Finger spelling - using the manual sign language alphabet to spell out words and/or phrases as a form of communication
·Total Communication - a philosophy emphasizing the use of any and all methods of communication. Students may be exposed to signed English, finger spelling, natural gestures, speech reading, body language, oral speech and amplification devices. The goal is to communicate and teach vocabulary and language by any practical method.
·TTY or TDD - a telecommunications device for the deaf that hooks up to a telephone and has a keyboard and a small screen across its face. The user dials a number and lays the receiver inside the TDD. The person on the other end of the line types text which scrolls across the screen of the TDD. The user can type his or her response, and the conversation continues. If the person being called does not have a TDD, most states have a relay service.
·Visual Ring Signaler - is a device that can be hooked up to the telephone and a lamp, which will blink when the telephone rings. A similar device can be connected to the doorbell, or to a baby monitor to alert parents when a baby is crying. Another device might shake the bed when it’s time to get up, instead of ringing an audible alarm.
Humphries, T., Padden, C. (1996) Deaf in America –Voices from a Culture. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Schein, J., (1995) At Home Among Strangers. Gallaudet University Press, Washington, D.C.