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Georgia State University Series: Early Intervention with Children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Part 1, Presentation 5 July 2001. Deaf Culture. Dr. Easterbrooks Group 1 Week 2. What defines “Deaf Culture?”.

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Georgia State University Series:Early Intervention with Children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Part 1, Presentation 5

July 2001


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Deaf Culture

Dr. Easterbrooks

Group 1

Week 2


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What defines “Deaf Culture?”

“Socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions and all other products of human works and thoughts.”

(American Heritage Dictionary, third edition, 1992)

People who are Deaf form a community, finding within it not just social interaction, but emotional support. It is not so much a geographical community, as one held together by a common language: American SignLanguage.

http://www.aidb.org/aidb/deaf.inf.asp


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What are the elements

of "Deaf Culture?"

  • ASL used for communication

  • Pride in “Deaf” history and culture

  • Label oneself as capital “D” Deaf and use the lower-case “deaf” to refer to medical deafness

  • View deafness as a social rather than a medical condition

  • Usually attend or attended state residential school for the deaf where ASL was used


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Continued…

  • May be opposed to cochlear implants

  • May belong to “Deaf Clubs” for socialization

  • Deaf theatre, poetry, jokes, sports, storytelling, art, and even music.

  • Magazines, journals, and books written by and about Deaf people and devoted to Deaf interest and concerns.

  • “Peripherals” such as TTYs, Closed Caption decoders, flashing alarms, etc.

    http://veritas.nizkor.org/`kmcvay/hearing.html


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What are the positive associations with the Deaf Community?

  • Ease with which peer communication is developed

  • Higher self-esteem and better social skills

  • Being able to associate with other individuals with a common bond

  • Having strength in numbers

    http://hearmemo.tripod.com/deafcult.htm


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Who can be considered part of the Deaf Community?

  • Deaf People who use ASL as their main form of communication

  • Children of Deaf Parents

  • Sign Language Interpreters

  • Teachers of the Deaf

  • Others who have a “place” in the community

    http://www.chs.ca/resources/vibes/1998/july98/deaf.htm


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A brief History of Deaf Culture:

  • Early 1800’s, Rev. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet traveled to Europe seeking effective teaching methods for educating deaf children.

  • Gallaudet returned with Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher from the Paris Institute for the Deaf.

  • Gallaudet learned sign language for reasons of bringing the “gospel to deaf people.”

  • Sign language was brought from Paris by Clerc, commingled with sign languages deaf students brought from across the country---and out of this mix came modernAmerican Sign Language.

Laurent Clerc

Thomas H. Gallaudet

http://depts.gallaudet.edu/deafeyes/community.html


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Communication/Language Options:

  • ASL

  • Signed English

  • Cued Speech

  • Oral/Auditory Oral

  • Total Communication

  • Speech reading

  • Finger spelling

    http://www.aidb.org/aidb.deaf-info.asp


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What role has technology played in recent deaf culture?

  • Internet

  • Closed Captioning

  • TTY/TDD devices

  • Interpreter

  • Visual Ring Signaler

  • Message-Relay Service


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Deaf people are using technology to their advantage.

  • The use of new communications technology, along with the increased awareness of discriminatory practices, have reduced many barriers. The internet has drastically reduced communication barriers.


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Deaf use Closed Captioning to enjoy television programs and movies.

  • Many technological developments have served to bring oral and signing deaf people together in common cause. For example, an array of professional, social, and political action organizations of and for deaf people worked together to ensure passage of the Television Decoder Circuitry Act in 1993, which required all new television sets with screens 13 inches or larger to incorporate closed captioning technology.


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TTYs/TDD devices allow deaf people to communicate by phone.

  • The printed word also makes it possible for deaf people to use the telephone by using a TDD (Telecommunication Device for the Deaf.) A deaf person can call another person with a TDD. Instead of talking, the two people type to each other.


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Message Relay Service

  • If a hearing person is being called by a deaf person on a TTY/TDD machine, there is a message-relay service available. The relay service operator types the messages to the person who is deaf and speaks to the hearing person.


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The use of interpreters allows deaf people to converse with the hearing world.

  • An interpreter is a deaf person’s ears and sometimes a deaf person’s voice. The interpreter listens and tells the deaf person what is spoken by all the people in the room. If the deaf person chooses not to talk, the interpreter may also speck the deaf person’s message.


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A device called a Visual Ring signaler can be hooked up to the telephone and a lamp, which will blink when the telephone rings. A similar device can be connected to the doorbell, or to a baby monitor to alert parents when a baby is crying. Another device might shake the bed when it is time to get up, instead of ringing an audible alarm.

Visual Ring Signaler:


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Deaf etiquette is very different in many ways from the etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

What do you need to know about Deaf Etiquette?


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Rude etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

Acceptable

Waving Etiquette

Huge waving across a ball field is acceptable as long as the people standing next to you are not disturbed.

Creating visual noises by excessive waving in a tiny room is very rude.


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Non-Urgent etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

Urgent

Touching Etiquette

The pressure of the tap implies urgency

One light tap (two seconds) signals a non-urgent message.

Repeated tapping (two to three quick taps) signals urgency.


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Acceptable for Hearing People etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

Acceptable for Deaf People

Eye Contact Etiquette

Ending a conversation is signaled through comments explaining why it is time to leave, without breaking eye contact.

Breaking eye contact in a spoken conversation can be a polite, yet quick signal that it is time to leave.


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Using an interpreter: Do’s etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

Interaction Tips

  • Speak directly to the Deaf person.

  • Allow the interpreter to stand or sit close to you so that the Deaf individual can see you and the interpreter at the same time.

  • Look at the Deaf person, not the interpreter.

  • Speak at a normal rate of speech and make your statements clear.


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Using an Interpreter: Don’ts etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

  • Say things to the interpreter that you don’t want repeated to the Deaf Person.

  • Ask the interpreter for his/her opinions about the Deaf person.

  • Hold personal conversations with the interpreter.

  • Stop to watch or to wait for the interpreter to begin signing.


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Glossary: etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

ASL- American Sign Language (ASL) is a manual language distinct from spoken English. It has its own syntax and grammar, and is the second most common language in the United States. Its history began in France in the late 1700’s, and brought to the U.S. in 1815 by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc. ASL is used as an expressive language, and written English is used to communicate with the hearing world. This communication method is also referred to as ASL/ESL or Bilingual/Bicultural. Like any living language, ASL continues to evolve.

·Auditory-Verbal - a program which emphasizes auditory skills. Children are taught to develop listening skills through individual therapy focusing on using any remaining or residual hearing with the help of amplification. Because this method is designed to encourage a child’s listening ability, no manual communication is used and the child is discouraged from using any visual cues.

·Cochlear Implant - a form of assistive device for the deaf which requires surgery to implant a device which is then connected to a receiver outside the ear. It allows people to experience the sensation of sound, but does not restore normal hearing. The person can hear environmental sounds better, and hear rhythms and patterns of speech and use speech reading or lip reading more effectively.


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Glossary continued… etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

·Cued Speech – a visual communication system using eight hand shapes or cues to represent different sounds of speech. The cues are used while talking to make spoken language clear to the person who is deaf or hard of hearing. The cues help the listener distinguish between sounds that look the same on the lips.

·deaf - with a lowercase “d”, this term refers to individuals who have a medical/audio logical condition of having little or no hearing. This term does not have any implication of the individual’s cultural or community involvement.

·Deaf - with an uppercase “D”, this term refers to individuals who identify themselves as Deaf and share a culture and community, not just a medical condition. Deaf people don’t want to be fixed and would not prefer to hear. Usually their preferred mode of communication is Sign Language.

·Finger spelling - using the manual sign language alphabet to spell out words and/or phrases as a form of communication


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Glossary continued…. etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

  • ·Interpreter - a sign language interpreter is a person who facilitates communication between Deaf, deafened or hard of hearing people. Professional Sign Language interpreters are usually knowledgeable in the language and culture of both Deaf and hearing people.

  • ·Message Relay Service - a service for deaf and hearing people who need to talk via telephone. The relay service operator types the messages to the person who is deaf and speaks to the hearing person. People without a TDD can call the relay operator to make a TDD call, too.

  • ·Oral/Auditory Oral - a program that teaches people to maximize the use of their residual hearing though amplification by the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, or an FM system. It also stresses the use of speech reading to help communication. Any; sign language use is discouraged although natural gestures my be used.

  • Signed English - the use of the manual alphabet to spell out each spoken word


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Glossary continued… etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

·Total Communication - a philosophy emphasizing the use of any and all methods of communication. Students may be exposed to signed English, finger spelling, natural gestures, speech reading, body language, oral speech and amplification devices. The goal is to communicate and teach vocabulary and language by any practical method.

·TTY or TDD - a telecommunications device for the deaf that hooks up to a telephone and has a keyboard and a small screen across its face. The user dials a number and lays the receiver inside the TDD. The person on the other end of the line types text which scrolls across the screen of the TDD. The user can type his or her response, and the conversation continues. If the person being called does not have a TDD, most states have a relay service.

·Visual Ring Signaler - is a device that can be hooked up to the telephone and a lamp, which will blink when the telephone rings. A similar device can be connected to the doorbell, or to a baby monitor to alert parents when a baby is crying. Another device might shake the bed when it’s time to get up, instead of ringing an audible alarm.


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Internet Resources: etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

www.iadeaf.k12.ia.us/news/hawkeye_fall-/culture

www.culturediversity.org/deaf.htm

www.chs.ca/resources/vibes/1998/july98/deaf.htm

www.sas.calpoly.edu/drc/deaf.html

www.expage.com/page/geisslera

http://veritas.nizkor.org/~kmcvay/hearing.html

www.aidb.org/aidb/deaf-info.asp

www.beginningssvcs.com

http://deafness.about.com

www.betterhearing.org

www.aslinfo.com

http://www.nih.gov/nided

www.mayohealth.org


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Other Resources: etiquette of the hearing world. The Deaf way can be described as direct, expressive, and not shy at all. It is important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively, and feel free to use a pen and paper to communicate if necessary.

Humphries, T., Padden, C. (1996) Deaf in America –Voices from a Culture. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Schein, J., (1995) At Home Among Strangers. Gallaudet University Press, Washington, D.C.


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