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Understanding livelihood change and evolving vulnerability in Lesotho – and appropriate programming responses. Palesa Ndabe Stephen Turner. Livelihoods in Lesotho: diverse and dynamic. To help reduce vulnerability and alleviate poverty, we must: understand the diversity track the dynamics

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Understanding livelihood change and evolving vulnerability in Lesotho – and appropriate programming responses

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Understanding livelihood change and evolving vulnerability in Lesotho –and appropriate programming responses

Palesa Ndabe

Stephen Turner


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Livelihoods in Lesotho: diverse and dynamic

  • To help reduce vulnerability and alleviate poverty, we must:

    • understand the diversity

    • track the dynamics

  • LRAP’s research component tried to do both


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LRAP research activities

  • Literature review

  • Research strategy

  • Eight other research studies

  • Emphasis on longitudinal work, including access to past data


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LRAP research activities

  • Literature review

  • Research strategy

  • Eight other research studies

  • Emphasis on longitudinal work, including access to past data

  • Analysis of the underlying causes of poverty


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Poverty and vulnerability in Lesotho

  • Poverty is spreading and deepening

  • Vulnerability is spreading and changing


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Underlying causes of poverty

  • Geopolitical history and status

  • Gender inequity

  • Governance and politics


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Intermediate causes of poverty

  • Unemployment

  • Environmental problems

  • HIV/AIDS


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National consultations, 2002: causes of poverty


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Evolving vulnerability: employment

  • Rural Lesotho is not an agrarian economy or society

  • South African mine labour more than halved in 15 years

  • Lesotho factory work: new opportunities, new vulnerabilities

  • Livelihoods and their vulnerabilities increasingly span urban and rural Lesotho


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Evolving vulnerability: environment

  • Unreliable climate a constant

  • Land degradation continues – we think

  • Water a key constraint

  • Increasing dependence on the biosphere for energy


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Evolving vulnerability: HIV/AIDS

  • The nation’s worst crisis

  • Deeper vulnerability for women and girls

  • New vulnerability for children and older people

  • New vulnerability for livelihoods

  • New vulnerability for the state


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Evolving vulnerability: institutions

  • Deteriorating governance hurts the poor most

  • A new start: a fragile time

  • Many indigenous institutions are resilient

  • Formal institutions threatened by HIV/AIDS


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Evolving vulnerability: sharing and support

  • Some sharing mechanisms resilient; others fading away

  • A decline in community spirit?

  • The massive new burden of HIV/AIDS

  • Can support groups help?


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Programming responses

  • Link livelihoods and HIV/AIDS initiatives

  • Link rural and urban initiatives

  • Help society to tackle gender inequity

  • Promote effective interventions in governance and social support


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Programming responses

  • Support ways for the vulnerable to produce food

  • Help people overcome water constraints

  • Help extension services adjust to new vulnerabilities

  • Adjust, extend, reinforce development roles


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Khotso

Pula

Nala


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