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SOUTHWEST ASIA. PERSIAN GULF AND THE INTERIOR. ANCIENT HISTORY. Cultural Hearths Centers of ideas, innovations and ideologies that change regions and realms Home of first Cultural Hearth Mesopotamia Between Tigris and Euphrates River Farmers used irrigation and food storage

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SOUTHWEST ASIA

PERSIAN GULF AND THE INTERIOR


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ANCIENT HISTORY

  • Cultural Hearths

    • Centers of ideas, innovations and ideologies that change regions and realms

    • Home of first Cultural Hearth

  • Mesopotamia

    • Between Tigris and Euphrates River

    • Farmers used irrigation and food storage

    • Domesticated cereal, vegetables, fruits, animals

    • Developed calendar, math, astronomy, government and engineering

  • Empirically controlled

    • Been controlled by many empires including Sumerian, Persia, Mongols, Romans, Ottoman Turks


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HISTORY cont.

  • Ottoman Turk Impact

    • Ruled from 1453 until after WWI

    • After WWI divided region into Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Yemen controlled by British and French

    • Didn’t adequately define border so when colonies gained independence, created problems

  • Oil

    • Most important resource for outside world

    • Within the realm, water and land most important

    • About 65% of known reserves in world located here


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Impact of Oil

  • American Influence on realm

  • High Economics: most countries upper-middle class

  • Modernization: brings money and business to pay for modernization

  • Industrialization: some use oil money to build lasting industries

  • Intra-realm migration: Shiites and Palestinians move into Arabia

    • Saudi Arabia has 5 million foreigners in population of 23 million

  • Disparities between oil rich and oil poor countries

  • Foreign investment


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IRAQ

  • Size of California with 65% of total land and 42% of regions wealth

  • Major oil reserves and large areas of irrigated farmland

  • Site of Mesopotamia

  • Modern Iraq

  • Adversarial with neighbors

    • Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Jordan, Syria

  • 3 regions

    • Core: around Baghdad, heart of country

    • South: around Basra, major oil fields, invasion of Kuwait in 1990

    • North: Land of Kurds and Sunni, but not Arab Sunni’s

      • Kurds want own country

      • Treated poorly under Suddam


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Arabian Peninsula

  • Saudi Arabia

    • Mostly desert with huge oil reserves

    • 22.9 million population with monarchy

    • Created in 1920’s and stabilized now friendly to west

    • Currently trying to update social programs

    • Economy entirely dependent upon oil

  • Periphery

    • Kuwait: can cut Iraq off from Persian Gulf

    • Bahrain: island with dwindling oil supply

    • Qatar: declining oil but increasing natural gas

    • UAE (United Arab Emirates) unique government

    • Oman: absolute monarchy that controls choke point of Hormuz Strait

    • Yemen: united in 1990’s and created democracy, only one in region


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IRAN

  • Formerly Persian Empire that ruled for 2500 years

  • Controls area between Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf

  • 69.4 million population with 63% urban

  • Struggle between modernity and traditional Islamic rulers

  • Revolution in 1979 that put in Ayatollah Khomeini

  • 1980-1990 fought war with Iraq that left Iran very weak

  • Late 1990’s saw desire to liberalize, but put down by government

  • Current US policies becoming a question


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MODERN ISSUES

  • Economically dependent on oil

  • OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • Food importers

  • Growing cities

  • Capital of Islamic world

  • What to do with Iraq?



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ISRAEL

  • Creation

    • Created in 1948 as Jewish homeland with UN support with idea of “Zionism”

    • May 14, 1948 created Israel with Arabic neighbors immediately attacking

    • At end of war, Israel controlled 80% of what had been Palestine

  • Wars

    • 1967 week long war where Israel gains Golan Heights, West Bank and Sinai Peninsula

    • 1973 war forces withdraw from Suez Canal

    • 1978 Israel gives all of Sinai Peninsula back to Egypt


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MAJOR ISSUES: MODERN ISRAEL

  • Golan Heights

    • Syria wants it back but Israel wants to keep it

  • West Bank

    • Originally set as Palestinian Homeland but Jewish migration now makes it difficult

    • 1977 5,000 Jews in West Bank

    • 2000 200,000 Jews in West Bank

  • Palestinians

    • Nation without a state

    • Many live in Jordan but still large percentage living in Israel


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JERUSALEM

  • Major issue in Middle East

  • Suppose to be international city, but captured by Israel in 1967

  • Now considered capital of Israel

  • History

    • Moses leads Jews into Philistine land and created Jerusalem where lived 40 centuries

    • After King Solomon, kingdom divided and conquered

    • AD 70 Rome destroys 2nd temple leaving only part of West Wall

    • Under Rome: became focus for Christians

    • 700 AD Muslims move into Jerusalem


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JERUSALEM, cont.

  • Holy Site for 3 major religions

    • Western Wall: Jewish

    • Church of Holy Sepulcher: Christians, place where Jesus buried

    • Dome of the Rock: Muhammad's ascension to heaven on Temple Mount

  • Modern Issues

    • 1948-49 captures only part of Jerusalem

    • Tel Aviv suppose to be capital of Israel

    • Jerusalem divided into 2 sections: Old and New


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MODERN ISSUES, cont.

  • Jerusalem

    • 1967 Israel conquered West Bank and reunited Jerusalem with West mostly Jewish and East mostly Arabic

    • 1980 called foreign nations to move from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, but most didn’t and Israel began huge resettlement attempt

    • 1990’s UN tells Israel to stop construction and settlement, but Israel not listening

  • Modern Issues

    • One of wealthiest nations in region

    • 90% of population urban

    • Water issues: 30 % of useable water under West Bank but Israel uses 4X as much water as Palestinians

    • Finding peace biggest issue and problem




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OTHER NATIONS IN REGION

  • Syria

    • Shares border with Israel

    • Lost Golan Heights in 1967; military republic since 1963

    • 75% Sunni, but ruled by Alawites who suppress all dissension

    • On Mediterranean Coast so can grow crops creating come self-sufficiency

    • Damascus: believed to be longest lived in city in world

    • Needs Modernization

  • Jordan

    • East of Israel and depends upon Lebanon for Port Access

    • 1946 population 400,000 with 1 million Palestinians refugees coming in 1948

    • Received lots of aide, but hasn’t really helped


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Other Nations, cont.

  • Lebanon

    • 25 % population is Christian creating Civil War

    • 1975 civil war after Muslim population grows and Christian doesn’t

    • Beirut destroyed and only 150,000 still lived there out of 1.5 million; now being rebuilt

  • Turkey

    • Influenced by Chinese, Mongols, Russians, Byzantium and Islam

    • Modern Turkey is remnants of Ottoman Turkish Empire

    • Modern Problems

      • 20 % of population Kurdish creating human rights violations

      • Islamic Fundamentalism gaining some support and strength

      • Cultural conflict between Alevis Islam and Sunni Islam

      • Wants EU membership but not likely

      • Controls Bosporus and Dardanelles


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