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Information Technology. Lecture Outlines Packet #1 FREC 135 – Introduction to Data Analysis. Computers in Our Society Today. Best described as “ubiquitous” – every where! Use has grown since the early 1950’s.

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Information Technology

Lecture Outlines Packet #1

FREC 135 – Introduction to Data Analysis


Computers in Our Society Today

  • Best described as “ubiquitous” – every where!

  • Use has grown since the early 1950’s.

  • The number of personal computers (micro computers) have gone from zero in the late 1970’s to estimates of billions today. 

    - http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/number_of_personal_computers

  • Cheaper, more reliable and easier to use!


Computers in our Society Today

  • How have computers (technology) affected you and our society?

  • Positive Negative


The UD Computing Environment

  • Computers used extensively by students, faculty, staff, etc.

  • Access is via:

  • Extensive “Central” Computing Resources

    • “UNIX systems” -- Copland and Strauss -- are used for many academic activities including course work, text processing, and scholarly research.

    • Variety of special purpose computers for administrative and research purposes. 

    • The University manages these systems and students, faculty and staff are allowed to use them provided they follow the rules – a privilege, not a right!

    • Computer technology at UD goes from…….


PC’s to Supercomputer


Information Technology

  • “Personal” Computing Resources

    • These are systems (computer, printer, etc.) that students bring to campus.  

    • IBM, Dell, Gateway, HP, Mac, etc.

  • Networks (U of DE Network, Internet and WWW) – access to the world!

    • Computers connected together!


Implications of Information Technology

  • Information Technology, the ability to access, provide, share, and manipulate data and information, has changed the way the world functions – it affects us all, either positively or negatively. Hastings, 2009.

  • “The whole world has been flattened….. global collaboration and competition….. have been made cheaper, easier, more friction-free, and more productive for more people from more corners of the world than at any other time in the history of the world.” Thomas Friedman, The World is Flat, 2005, page 200.

  • Regarding the Information Technology Revolution: “Now we are going into the main event…..an era in which technology will transform every aspect of business, every aspect of life and every aspect of society.” Carly Fiorina, 2004.


Implications of Information Technology

  • WSJ, 10/28/09


Implications of Information Technology

  • “A UC Berkeley study reported that in 2002, …human kind created 5 exabytes of stored data – in paper, the equivalent of creating 500,000 new Libraries of Congress each year. …..More that 90 percent [of those datum] …. were stored on a hard disk. Every day we create and store more information in (digital format) than had been stored for most of our history on paper.” (Page 276)

    John Battelle, The Search, 2005

  • Exa = 1018

    What does this mean to you as a student

    and future professional?


The Way We Do Things Have Changed!


The Challenge of Information Technology

  • The challenge today for students, faculty, professionals is to catch-up, if necessary and, then, to keep up!

  • You, as a student and future professional, will have to:

    • be computer competent,

    • know and understand the rules of technology, and

    • abide by the rules.


Data versus Information

  • What is Data?

  • What is Information?

  • Creating Information from Data

    • Data -> Processing -> Information -> Application (Goal)

    • Example:

      • Faculty submit classes, times, etc. ->

      • Listed, sorted by department, etc. ->

      • Results stored electronically ->

      • Students access UDSIS to register for classes.

  • We – us - our society use(s) information constantly!

  • Desirable Characteristics of Information –


Data versus Information

  • What is Data? “raw facts”; usually observed and collected

  • What is Information? “data that has been organized into a useful and ordered form”

  • Creating Information from Data

    • Data -> Processing -> Information -> Application (Goal)

    • Example:

      • Faculty submit classes, times, etc. ->

      • Listed, sorted by department, etc. ->

      • Results stored electronically ->

      • Students access UDSIS to register for classes.

  • We – us - our society use(s) information constantly!

  • Desirable Characteristics of Information –


Data versus Information

  • What is Data? “raw facts”; usually observed and collected

  • What is Information? “data that has been organized into a useful and ordered form”

  • Creating Information from Data

    • Data -> Processing -> Information -> Application (Goal)

    • Example:

      • Faculty submit classes, times, etc. ->

      • Listed, sorted by department, etc. ->

      • Results stored electronically ->

      • Students access UDSIS to register for classes.

  • We – us - our society use(s) information constantly!

  • Desirable Characteristics of Information – accurate, complete, organized

    consise, easy to use, understand ….


Processing Data in The Old Days


Computers are a Tool

  • - Computers are a, actually “the best”, tool to produce and manage information – they are fast, accurate and have extensive storage capabilities.

  • Think hammer and nails or screw driver and screws!


Computer Competency

  • Computer Competency (Computing Literacy)

    • Lots of definitions!

    • An individual’s knowledge about computers and their ability to use computers to produce and manage information necessary  to make decisions and solve problems in their student and professional lives.

  • Hastings “Big Five” Types of Applications

    • Word Processing

    • Spreadsheets

    • Database Management

    • Presentation and Analytical Graphics

    • Communications (E-Mail, Browser, FTP, etc.)

    • Beyond these, needs vary by major and profession – CAD, GIS, Statistics, etc.


Data Representation in Computers

  • Computers use language of binary

    digits (0’s and 1’s) to store and process data.

  • Various ways exist to capture 0’s and 1’s

  • Examples:

    • Fixed or Hard Disks use magnetic particles

    • Processors use electric charges (on/off)

    • CDs and DVDs use reflective and non-reflective surfaces


Digital Technology


Information System

  • Parts of An Information System (6) – O’Leary and O’Leary, “Computing Essentials”.

    • People – users that need information – set goals

    • Data – raw facts

    • Procedures – how to make things work; rules

    • Hardware – monitor, system unit, printer, etc.

    • Software – programs (code) that executes instructions

    • Connectivity – computers communicating to share data, information, etc.

      • The Internet - a network (computers connected together) that connects millions of computers world-wide.

      • World Wide Web - a multimedia interface to resources on the Internet


Access to the Internet


Evolution of Computers

  • What was the First Computer?

  • Significant Events in Computer History

    • Computer History Museum - www.computerhistory.org

    • Dotcalm Computing -

      http://www.dotcalmcomputing.com/history.htm

  • The Generations (and Technology) of Modern Computing (1950 - )

    • First Generation (1951 – 1957) - Vacuum Tubes 

    • Second Generation (1958 – 1963) – Transistors

    • Third Generation (1964 – 1969) - Integrated Circuits

    • Fourth Generation (1970 – 1990) Microprocessors

    • Fifth Generation (1990 - ?) – Connectivity (networks, The Web, The Internet, wireless connections, etc.)


Computers Types

  • Hierarchy from most powerful to least powerful:

    • Supercomputers - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer

    • Mainframe Computers - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainframe_computer

    • Mini or Mid Range – Computers –

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini_computer

    • Microcomputers or Personal Computers –

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcomputer

      • Desk Top Computers

      • Notebook or Laptop Computers

      • Palm or Handheld Computers

    • CATEGORIES OVERLAP!


Classifying Computers

  • Types of Computer Systems 

    • Historically, computers were in distinct categories; those categories are now very fuzzy (not distinct).

    • Criteria for Classifying Computers 

      • Architecture – design of internal circuitry

        • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_architecture

      • Processing Speed of Central Processing Unit

      • Capacity of Primary (Main) Memory

      • Capacity of External Storage Devices

      • Number of Users (1 to ?)

      • Cost ($100’s to $1,000,000’s)

      •  Collectively, these criteria determine “computing power”.


Microcomputers

  • Why least powerful and most used?

    • Increased productivity

    • Problem-solving abilities – provide information

    • Useful to variety of people

    • Inexpensive – relatively!

    • Easy to use, inexpensive software

    • Growth of Microcomputer Hardware, Software and Peripheral Markets


Trends in Microcomputers - 1970’s to the Present

  • Increased “Power” – faster processing, more storage, more fonts, more colors, etc. – due to hardware and software

  • Increased Use and Uses – sales of hardware and software

  • Increased number and use of peripherals – printers, scanners, cameras, Ipods, etc.

  • Increased Variety of Types – desktops, laptops, hand helds, PDA’s, etc.

  • Increased merger of computer, telephone, calculator, radio and TV.

  • Decreased Prices - many $1,000’s to $100’s to $10’s


Social Issues of Information Technology

  • We are all affected by computers on a daily basis.

  • Students, faculty, parents, businesses – everyone!

  • Technology affects our lives in many ways – some good, some bad!


Recent Headlines


Social Issues of Information Technology

  • Major Issues

    • Privacy – everyone has data about themselves stored somewhere!

      • Who has access to information to about you?

      • Is your information accurate?

      • Who owns your data?

      • Largely controlled by ethical behavior by people.


Social Issues of Information Technology

  • Security

    • Many forms of computer crimes / criminals.

    • Other Risks –

      • Natural Hazards

      • Civil Unrest and Terrorism

      • Technological Failures

      • Human Errors – we do stupid things!

        Source: Newsweek, 12/8/08.


Social Issues of Information Technology

  • Ways to prevent loss of computers, data and information include:

  • locking your door!,

  • encrypting,

  • protecting passwords,

  • firewalls,

  • virus protection,

  • remove spy ware and

  • BACKING UP!


Social Issues of Information Technology

  • Ergonomics - study of human factors related to computers

    • Physical Heath 

      • Eye strain, headaches, RSI, muscle pains, etc.

    • Mental Health 

      • Noise, monitoring, technostress, etc.


Social Issues of Information Technology

  • Environmental Concerns 

    • Energy Consumption

    • Use of toxic metals and chemicals


Social Issues of Information Technology

  • Recycling Electronics – eCycling

  • From the EPA, re electronic devices:

  • The Future

    • Technology is out-racing social, legal and political institutions.

    • Change is ongoing!


Summary

  • Computers have become an integral part of our personal , student and professional lives.

  • With that comes increased benefits, costs and responsibilities for users – like our selves!

  • All technological advances, including computers, have costs and benefits for society.

  • Lecture Sources: O’Leary , Computing Essentials - 2008, 2008 and Miscellaneous Personal Materials.


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