Darwin not first to suggest evolution
Download
1 / 76

Genotype and phenotype - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 619 Views
  • Updated On :

Darwin not first to suggest evolution occurs. Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Published his theory of evolution in 1809. Mechanism -- Inheritance of acquired characteristics. Inheritance of acquired characteristics: Characteristics an organism acquires

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Genotype and phenotype' - LeeJohn


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

Darwin not first to suggest evolution

occurs.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829).

Published his theory of evolution in

1809.

Mechanism -- Inheritance of acquired

characteristics.


Slide2 l.jpg

Inheritance of acquired characteristics:

Characteristics an organism acquires

during its lifetime are passed on to

its offspring.

Example: Giraffes stretch their necks to

reach leaves. As a result their young

born with longer necks.


Slide3 l.jpg

Lamarck’s mechanism does not work

because DNA is not changed by an

organism’s behavior or experiences.

One-way flow of information from

DNA to body.


Slide4 l.jpg

Charles Darwin (1809-1882).

Son of a wealthy doctor.

Studied medicine. Dropped out.

Then studied theology.

Keen naturalist and hunter.


Slide5 l.jpg

Voyage of The Beagle (1831-1836)

Darwin companion for Captain Fitzroy.

(Darwin not the official naturalist.)

Beagle sailed around the World.

Mission to map coast of South America.


Slide7 l.jpg

Sites visited included Galapagos Islands.

Volcanic islands (hence of recent origin)

off coast of Ecuador.

Unique animals on Galapagos include

giant tortoises, marine iguanas, and

Darwin’s finches.


Slide8 l.jpg

On voyage Darwin read Lyell’s

Principles of Geology.

Book emphasized:

1. Gradualism: Geological features can be explained by gradual action of processes we see around us. E.g. wind, waves, rivers.

2. Great age of the earth


Slide9 l.jpg

What Darwin observed

1. South American fossils resembled

living animals.

e.g. Extinct glyptodont (2,000 kg)

resembles modern-day armadillo (2 kg).


Slide11 l.jpg

What Darwin observed:

2. Parts of the world with similar

climates (e.g. Australia, South America)

populated by very different organisms.


Slide12 l.jpg

What Darwin observed:

3. Plants and animals on each continent

are distinctive.

E.g. kangaroos in Australia, guinea pigs,

armadillos in South America.


Slide13 l.jpg

What Darwin observed:

4. Many species on oceanic islands are

found only there (endemic).

Often groups of very similar species

found on these islands.

E.g. Galapagos finches and tortoises.

These are examples of adaptive radiation.



Slide15 l.jpg

Large

Cactus

Ground

Finch


Slide16 l.jpg

Sharp-

beaked

Ground

Finch




Slide22 l.jpg

What Darwin observed:

5. Endemic species on islands closely

resemble species on adjacent mainland.


Slide23 l.jpg

These observations suggested to Darwin

that species are not unchanging.

Instead species change over time i.e.,

Evolution occurs.

But how does evolution take place?


Slide24 l.jpg

Key breakthrough when Darwin read:

Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of

population.

Malthus: Populations increase

geometrically (multiplicatively), but

resources do not.

Populations will outgrow their food

supply.


Slide27 l.jpg

Darwin concluded that among organisms there is a struggle for existence. Only the best adapted organisms survive to breed.

Darwin called the mechanism that causes evolution to occur: natural selection.


Slide28 l.jpg

Darwin’s logic

5 observations and 3 inferences

(or conclusions).


Slide29 l.jpg

Observation 1. If all organisms bred successfully populations would increase exponentially.

Observation 2. However, populations generally stay stable over time.

Observation 3. Resources are limited.


Slide30 l.jpg

Inference 1. populations would increase exponentially.

Because resources are limited, more

individuals are born than the

environment can support.

There is a struggle for existence (and

ultimately for reproduction.)

Only some individuals survive to breed.


Slide31 l.jpg

Observation 4. Individuals differ in populations would increase exponentially.

their characteristics. There is variation.

Observation 5. Much of that variation

is heritable.


Slide32 l.jpg

Inference 2. Survival and reproduction populations would increase exponentially.

are not random. The characteristics of

an organism, which it inherits, affect

its chances of survival and reproduction.

Organisms best adapted to the

environment on average leave the most

offspring.


Slide33 l.jpg

Inference 3. Because variation is populations would increase exponentially.

heritable, differences between

individuals in their reproductive success

lead to changes in the characteristics of

the next generation. Evolution occurs.


Slide34 l.jpg

Darwin developed his ideas in 1842, but populations would increase exponentially.

did not publish them immediately.

In 1858 Alfred Russel Wallace wrote

to Darwin. He had independently

developed the theory of evolution by

natural selection.


Slide35 l.jpg

Joint presentation of their ideas in 1858. populations would increase exponentially.

Darwin published On the Origin of

Species in 1859.

Explained in detail his ideas about

evolution and natural selection.


Slide36 l.jpg

Major difficulty for Darwin was that populations would increase exponentially.

he did not understand how inheritance

occurs.

Darwin did not express his ideas in terms

of genes. He had no idea what genes

were or what DNA was.


Slide37 l.jpg

Basic genetics terminology populations would increase exponentially.

DNA is the genetic material. The

instructions for making and “operating”

an organism are written in DNA.

DNA is divided into sections called

genes.


Slide38 l.jpg

Each gene codes for a protein. populations would increase exponentially.

Together the genes determine the

characteristics of an organism.


Slide39 l.jpg

Alleles populations would increase exponentially. are different versions of a

gene.

If a single gene codes for flower

color, white and blue flowers would

be coded for by 2 different alleles.


Slide40 l.jpg

You possess two copies of each gene in populations would increase exponentially.

your body*.

One copy is inherited from each parent.

For a given gene you may have two

different alleles or two copies of the same

allele.

(* excluding genes on sex chromosomes

in males).


Slide41 l.jpg

A populations would increase exponentially.homozygous individual has two

copies of a particular allele. (AA)

A heterozygous individual has two

different alleles. (Aa)


Genotype and phenotype l.jpg
Genotype and phenotype populations would increase exponentially.

  • An organism’s genes (its genotype) play a large role in determining its physical appearance (its phenotype).

  • But remember an organism’s phenotype is also affected by the environment.


Slide43 l.jpg

Today we express evolutionary ideas in populations would increase exponentially.

terms of genes because genes are the

only things passed from one generation

to the next.


Slide44 l.jpg

In the process of populations would increase exponentially.natural selection, genes

that help organisms to survive

and reproduce become more common.

Genes that help less or are harmful

gradually are eliminated from the

population.


Slide45 l.jpg

Only those individuals that are the populations would increase exponentially.

most successful, e.g. the fastest, the best

camouflaged, the best foragers, etc.

succeed in breeding.

The genes of other individuals are not

passed on to the next generation.


Slide46 l.jpg

Natural selection populations would increase exponentially. is the term used to

describe the process by which the

best genes are chosen in each

generation.

Evolution occurs when gene frequencies

change from one generation to the next.


Slide47 l.jpg

As a result of natural selection organisms populations would increase exponentially.

become increasingly well adapted to

their environments.

Adaptations are characteristics of

organisms that enable them to survive

in their environments.


Slide48 l.jpg

Evolution is a populations would increase exponentially.population process. An

individual does not evolve.


Slide49 l.jpg

Natural selection in action. populations would increase exponentially.


Peppered moth and industrial melanism l.jpg
Peppered Moth and industrial melanism. populations would increase exponentially.

Peppered moth occurs in two forms: light, speckled form and dark (melanic) form.

In early 1800’s dark form very rare.

Dark form caused by dominant mutation

that occurs spontaneously.


Slide51 l.jpg

A mutation is a change in gene’s DNA . populations would increase exponentially.

Dominant allele is expressed even if only

one copy is present. (i.e., is expressed

even in heterozygotes).


Slide52 l.jpg

Peppered moths rest on trees and depend populations would increase exponentially.

on camouflage for protection.


Slide53 l.jpg

In unpolluted areas trees covered populations would increase exponentially.

in lichens. Light form of moth hard for

birds to see.

In mid 1800’s air pollution in British

cities covered trees in soot.

In cities dark form of moth

became common and light form rare.


Slide55 l.jpg

In mid 1950’s pollution controls populations would increase exponentially.

reduced air pollution in Britain.

Frequency of dark form has

declined steadily since then.


Darwin s finches on galapagos l.jpg
Darwin’s Finches on Galapagos populations would increase exponentially.

Peter and Rosemary Grant of Princeton

have studied Medium Ground Finches

on Daphne Major for almost 30 years.

Banded and measured the island’s

entire population and followed it over

many years.


Slide58 l.jpg

Rainfall on Galapagos Islands populations would increase exponentially.

is unpredictable.

In wet years lots of seeds produced.

In dry years few or no seeds produced.


Slide59 l.jpg

Finches with larger bills can eat large populations would increase exponentially.

seeds and small seeds.

Finches with smaller bills cannot eat

large seeds, but are more efficient at

eating small seeds.


Slide60 l.jpg

In droughts large-billed finches (and genes populations would increase exponentially.

for large bills) survive better than

small-billed finches (and genes for small

bills).

Mean beak depth of the finch population

fluctuates in synchrony with climate.


Sickle cell anemia l.jpg
Sickle Cell Anemia populations would increase exponentially.

Sickle cell anemia is a condition common

in West Africans (and African Americans of West African ancestry).

In sickle cell anemia red blood cells are

sickle shaped.

Usually fatal by about age 10.


Slide64 l.jpg

About 1% of West Africans have sickle populations would increase exponentially.

cell anemia.

A single mutation causes a valine

amino acid to replace a glutamine

in an alpha chain of the hemoglobin

molecule.

Mutation causes molecules to stick

together.


Slide66 l.jpg

Why isn’t mutant sickle cell gene populations would increase exponentially.

eliminated by natural selection?


Slide67 l.jpg

Only individuals populations would increase exponentially.homozygous for

sickle cell gene get sickle cell anemia.

Individuals with one copy of sickle cell gene

(heterozygotes) get sickle cell trait

(mild form of disease).

Individuals with sickle cell trait don’t

get malaria.


Malaria l.jpg
Malaria populations would increase exponentially.

  • Malaria is one of the most important diseases in the world.

  • About 500 million cases and an estimated 700,000 to 2.7 million deaths occur worldwide each year (CDC).

  • Malaria was well known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Romans thought the disease was caused by bad air (in Latin mal-aria) from swamps, which they drained to prevent the disease.


Slide69 l.jpg


Slide71 l.jpg

  • Plasmodium sporozoan parasite called has two hosts: mosquitoes and humans and a complex life cycle.

  • Sexual reproduction takes place in the mosquito and the parasite is transmitted to humans when the mosquito takes a blood meal.

  • In a human Plasmodium goes reproduces in liver cells and then red blood cells before being picked up by a mosquito to continue the cycle again.


Slide73 l.jpg

  • The severity of a malaria infection may range from asymptomatic (no apparent sign of illness) to the classic symptoms of malaria (fever, chills, sweating, headaches, muscle pains), to severe complications (cerebral malaria, anemia, kidney failure) that can result in death.


Sickle cell allele protects against malaria l.jpg
Sickle cell allele protects against malaria asymptomatic (no apparent sign of illness) to the classic symptoms of malaria (fever, chills, sweating, headaches, muscle pains), to severe complications (cerebral malaria, anemia, kidney failure) that can result in death.

  • People with the sickle cell allele are protected against Plasmodium because their hemoglobin under low oxygen conditions contracts into needle-shaped clumps.

  • This contraction not only causes the sickling of the cell, but harms the parasite. Parasites are impaled on the clumps and the cell loses its ability to pump potassium, which the parasite needs.


Slide76 l.jpg

Heterozygotes (those with one copy of the sickle cell asymptomatic (no apparent sign of illness) to the classic symptoms of malaria (fever, chills, sweating, headaches, muscle pains), to severe complications (cerebral malaria, anemia, kidney failure) that can result in death.

Allele have higher survival than

either homozygote. Heterozygote advantage.

Sickle cell homozygotes die of sickle

cell anemia

“Normal” homozygotes more likely

to die of malaria.

Stabilizing selection for sickle cell allele.


ad