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Theories of Evolution. Darwin vs. Lamarck. Jean-Baptiste LaMarck. French, Early 1800’s Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Two main points…. 1. Principle of Use & Disuse: Most used body structures develop, unused structures waste away.

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Darwin vs lamarck

Theories of Evolution

Darwin vs. Lamarck


Jean baptiste lamarck
Jean-Baptiste LaMarck

  • French, Early 1800’s

    Theory of

    Inheritance of

    Acquired Characteristics

  • Two main points…


1. Principle of Use & Disuse:

  • Most used body structures develop, unused structures waste away

2. Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics:

  • Once the structure is modified, the new trait can be inherited (passed to offspring)



Why we don t believe him
Why we don’t believe him…

  • Experiments: show that changes that occur in an animal’s life are not passed on to its offspring

  • Genetics:Gregor Mendel discovered that traits are passed down through GENES (which aren’t affected by the outside world in that way)


Charles darwin the father of evolution
Charles Darwin“The Father of Evolution”

  • 1831- sailed on the HMS Beagle to the Galapagos Islands.

  • Studied many species of finches.

  • Published book in 1845:

    • “On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection”


Darwin s theory of evolution don t copy all this it s on your handout
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution(don’t copy all this it’s on your handout) 

“Natural Selection”

“Survival of the Fittest”


Four main points
Four main points…

  • 1. More organisms are produced than can survive…leads to COMPETITION OVER RESOURCES

    • Ex’s of resources…

      • Water

      • Food

      • Habitat

      • Mates



3 some variations are favorable increase chances for survival reproduction
3. Some variations are FAVORABLE traits are heritable.(increase chances for survival/ reproduction)

  • Male vs. Female Cardinals

  • Male color attracts female= reproductive advantage


Better adapted individuals survive and reproduce
Better adapted individuals survive and reproduce traits are heritable.

  • These are the individuals that will pass on their genes to the next generation.

  • This can change the GENE POOL:

    • Includes all the genes of every reproductive member of a population


What the theory of evolution is not
What The theory of evolution IS NOT!!! traits are heritable.

  • It does NOT occur in INDIVIDUALS…only populations!

  • It does NOT happen quickly…the Earth has a Looooooong history!

  • It does NOT explain how life came to be on Earth, just how it evolved after it was here.

  • It does NOT have any driving force except the competition for limited resources.


Darwin s finches p 558
Darwin’s Finches…p 558 traits are heritable.

  • Illustrate SPECIATION: when a species breaks into two (or more)

    • The organisms in the two species can no longer…

      • INTERBREED

  • What could cause this to happen?

    • Geographic barriers

    • Occupy a new niche/habitat

    • Reproductive Isolation-



Evolution change over time
Evolution- long necks? “Change Over Time”

All of the changes that have occurred in living things since the beginning of life on Earth



700 million years ago
700 million years ago… long necks?

MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS!


Three important points
Three important points… long necks?

  • Evolution occurs over MANY generations

  • Evolution occurs within POPULATIONS (NOT individuals)

  • Evolution involves genetic changes in a SPECIES

    • (Members of a species interbreed to produce healthy, fertile offspring)



Fossil evidence provides transitional links
FOSSIL EVIDENCE- long necks?Provides TRANSITIONAL LINKS

Archaeopteryx-

links reptiles and birds

Therapsids-

mammal-like reptiles


Anatomical evidence
Anatomical Evidence long necks?

HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES

structures that are similar because they were inherited from a COMMON ANCESTOR

ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES

similar in function, but NOT inherited from a common ancestor

NOTE: similar structure, but NOT always function!

NOTE: similar FUNCTION, but not STRUCTURE


More anatomical evidence vestigial structures
More Anatomical Evidence: long necks?Vestigial Structures

Vestigial Structures are undeveloped structures that were functional in some ancestor, but are no longer needed in that organism.


Embryology suggests common ancestors
EMBRYOLOGY- long necks?suggests common ancestors


Biogeographical evidence
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCE long necks?

  • When we study the distribution of plants and animals on the planet, we notice:

    • Animals evolved differently in each of the biogeographical regions

    • We see evidence that as the continents drifted, organisms were separated and evolved.


Biochemical evidence
BIOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE long necks?

  • Almost all living things use the same biochemical molecules

    • DNA, Protein, ATP

  • Vast diversity came about by only slight differences in the same genes

    • The more closely “related” the organisms are, the more similar their DNA


Other evidence
Other Evidence… long necks?

  • 1. Mimicry and Camoflauge

  • 2. Antibiotic Resistance


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