Chapter 1. Preliminaries. Purpose of This Book. To examine carefully the underlying concepts of the various constructs and capabilities of programming languages. Chapter 1 Topics. Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages Programming Domains Language Evaluation Criteria
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count = count + 1
count += 1
A Reg1, memory_cell
AR Reg1, Regs
Reg1 <- contents(Reg1)+ contents(memory_cell)
Reg1 <- contents(Reg1)+ contents(Reg2)
ADDL operand_1, operand_2
Operand_2 <- contents(operand_1)+contents(opernad_2)
timeOut = true
int foo(unsigned int a, int b)
initialize the program counter
fetch the instruction pointed by the counter
increment the counter
decode the instruction
execute the instruction
P.S.: the ``decode the instruction’’ step in the algorithm means the instruction is examined to determine what action it specifies.
The operating system and language implementation are layered over
Machine interface of a computer
If a is not a volatile variable, the optimization improve performance; otherwise, it introduces race condition problem.
address space of a process
#define max(A, B) ((A) > (B) ? (A): (B))
to determine the largest of two given expressions.