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Human/Labor Relations. Week One. Human Relations & Perception. Why is Human Relations Important in Business?. Human/Labor Relations. Organizational goals are achieved by people working together effectively. People are the most important resource in an organization =

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Human/Labor Relations

Week One

Human Relations & Perception


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Why is Human Relations Important in Business?

Human/Labor Relations

Organizational goals are achieved by people working together effectively.

People are the most important resource in an organization =

Total Person Approach to Management


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Which way do I go?

Why have the approaches to Human Relations been changing?

Human/Labor Relations

  • Global competition

  • Diversity of the workforce

  • Technology is electronic not mechanical

  • Accepting of change and chaos

  • Request for sharing of power


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Human/Labor Relations

Influences Having an Impact on Human Relations Theory

  • Social Forces … values, needs, and standards of behavior.

  • Political Forces … influence of political and legal institutions on people & organizations.

  • Economic Forces … forces that affect the availability, production, & distribution of a society’s resources.

  • Historical Forces…the effect of the past, present and the future.


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Human/Labor Relations

Human Relations Perspectives Over Time

1990

The Learning Organization

1950

Management Science

1940

Behavioral Science

1920

Human Relations

1900

Classical


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Human/Labor Relations

Classical Theory

  • Labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibility.

  • Positions are in hierarchy of authority.

  • Personnel are selected and promoted based on qualifications.

  • Management is separate from ownership.

  • Rules and procedures ensure reliable, & predictable behavior.

  • Rules are impersonal and uniformly applied.


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Division of labor

Authority

Discipline

Unity of command

Unity of direction

Subordination of individual interest for common good

Remuneration

Centralization

Scalar chain

Order

Equity

Stability and tenure of staff

Initiative

Esprit de corps

Administrative Principles &Henri Fayol’s 14 Points


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Characteristics of Scientific Management

General Approach

  • Developed standard method for performing each job.

  • Selected workers with appropriate abilities for each job.

  • Trained workers in standard method.

  • Supported workers by planning work and eliminating interruptions.

  • Provided wage incentives to workers for increased output.

    Contributions

  • Demonstrated the importance of compensation for performance.

  • Initiated the careful study of tasks and jobs.

  • Demonstrated the importance of personnel and their training.

    Criticisms

  • Did not appreciate social context of work and higher needs of workers.

  • Did not acknowledge variance among individuals.

  • Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas.


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Human/Labor Relations

Human Relations Approach

  • Emphasized understanding human behavior.

  • Dealt with needs & attitudes in the workplace.

  • Truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than authoritarian control.

  • Hawthorne Studies brought this perspective to forefront.


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Human Relations Movement

Hawthorne Studies

  • Ten year study

  • Four experimental & three control groups

  • Five different tests

  • Test pointed to factors other than illumination for productivity

  • 1st Relay Assembly Test Room experiment, was controversial, test lasted 6 years

  • Interpretation, money not cause of increased output

  • Factor that increased output, Human Relations


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Behavioral Sciences Approach

Human/Labor Relations

  • Develops theories about human behavior based on scientific methods & study.

  • Applies social science in an organizational context.

  • In understanding employees draws from economics, psychology, sociology.


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Management Science Perspective

Human/Labor Relations

  • Emerged after WW II

  • Distinguished for its application of mathematics, statistics to problem solving

  • Operations Research emerged

  • Operations Management emerged

  • Management Information Systems emerged


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The Learning Organization

Human/Labor Relations

  • Emerged in late 1990s.

  • Reaction to rapid changes taking place in organizations.

  • Emphasizes ability to cope with “chaos”.

  • Empowerment

  • Participatory Management.


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Culture that can be seen at the surface level

Visible

1. Artifacts, such as dress, office layout, symbols, slogans, ceremonies

Invisible

2. Expressed values, such as “The Penney Idea,” “The HP Way”

3. Underlying assumptions and deep beliefs, such as “people are lazy and can’t be trusted”

Deeper values and shared understandings held by organization members

Human/Labor Relations

Levels of Corporate Culture


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Human/Labor Relations

Visible Manifestations

  • Symbols – an object, act, or event that conveys significant meaning.

  • Stories – a narrative based on an event that is shared within the company. (Cookie story.)

  • Heroes – figure that exemplifies the attributes of the company. (Lee Iacocca.)

  • Slogans – a succinct expression of corporate values. (… you have to please the customer.)

  • Ceremonies – awards; employee of the year.


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Types of Corporate Cultures

Human/Labor Relations

  • Baseball team culture

  • Club culture

  • Academy culture

  • Fortress culture


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Organizational Culture of Highline Community College

Human/Labor Relations

What are the symbols, stories, heroes, slogans, and ceremonies at Highline?


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Perception

Human/Labor Relations

The process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information from the environment.


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The Perception Process

Human/Labor Relations

Organizing the selected data into patterns for interpretation and response

Screening the information and selecting what to process

Observing information via the senses


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Perceptual Selectivity

Human/Labor Relations

  • Characteristics of the Stimuli

  • Contrast

  • Novelty

  • Familiarity

  • Intensity

  • Motion

  • Repetition

  • Size


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Perceptual Selectivity

Human/Labor Relations

  • Characteristics of the Perceiver

  • Needs and Motivation

  • Values and Beliefs

  • Personality

  • Learning

  • Primacy

  • Recency


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Perceptual Distortions

Human/Labor Relations

  • Stereotyping

  • Halo effect

  • Projection

  • Perceptual defense

Be aware!


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Attributions

Human/Labor Relations

  • Internal attribution says characteristics of the person led to the behavior.

  • External attribution says something about the situation caused the behavior.

  • Three factors influencingwhether an attribution will be internal or external:

  • Distinctiveness- whether the behavior is unusual for that person. If so, the perceiver will assume an external attribute.

  • Consensus- whether other people tend to respond to similar situations in the same way. If so, the perceiver will assume an external attribute.

  • Consistency- whether the person being observed has a history of behaving in the same way. If so, the perceiver will assume an internal attribution.

Judgements about what caused a person’s behavior.

Was it something about the person or something about the situation.


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Johari Window

Human/Labor Relations

http://www.cps.usfca.edu/324sh/johari.htm


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Stress Response

Human/Labor Relations

Stage 2

Perceptual Defense

Stage 3

Exhaustion

Stage 1

Alarm

Response to stressful event

Perceptual Defense

Normal level of resistance


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Causes of Boss Stress

Human/Labor Relations

Four Categories:

  • Demands Associated with Job Tasks

  • Physical Conditions

  • Roles (Sets of expected behaviors)

  • Interpersonal Pressures and Conflicts