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WEDNESDAY 1.22. Bell Ringer#1. Locate the following: The Netherlands are located east of ____ and within the borders of ____. Define the following: Divine Right of Kings- *Use Chapter 14, Sections 1 and 2!. Chapter 14 Sec tions 1 & 2. Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion &

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Wednesday 1 22



Bell ringer 1

Bell Ringer#1

  • Locate the following:

  • The Netherlands are located east of ____ and within the borders of ____.

  • Define the following:

  • Divine Right of Kings-

    *Use Chapter 14, Sections 1 and 2!

Chapter 14 sec tions 1 2

Chapter 14 Sections 1 & 2

Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion


Social Crisis, War, and Revolution



  • 1560- Calvinists and Catholics were militant (combative)

    • Win converts

    • Eliminate other’s authority

  • Huguenots(HYOO guh NAWTS)- French Protestants

    • 7% of total population

    • 40-50% of the nobility

    • Powerful threat to the Crown

  • 1598- Edict of Nantes by King Henry IV

    • Catholicism became the official religion of France

    • Huguenots gained freedom to worship and kept political rights



  • 1556-1598- King Phillip II

    • Supporter of militant Catholicism

    • Wanted to unify Spanish territory in Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, and the Americas

      • Each nation/territory resisted the Spanish control

      • Many refused to convert to Catholicism

    • Spain went bankrupt due to military spending

    • Out-of-date military

    • Inefficient government



  • 1558- Queen Elizabeth I

    • England became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe

      • Act of Supremacy- Supreme leader of the church and government

      • Moderate Protestantism- Kept Protestants and Catholics happy

    • Attempted to balance the power between France and Spain

      • If one nation seemed to gain power, England would support the weaker nation

    • 1588- Phillip II of Spain ordered an armada (fleet of warships) to invade England

      • Lost battles against the English fleet

      • Many ships sank off the coast of Ireland and Scotland due to storms

The thirty years war

The Thirty Years War

  • 1555- Peace of Augsburg

    • Allowed Germans to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism

    • Did not include Calvinism (newest form of Protestantism)

  • 1618- Began in the Holy Roman Empire

    • Started as a religious war

      • Germany v. HRE

    • Soon became political

      • Denmark, Sweden, France, and Spain joined

The thirty years war1

The Thirty Years War

  • All fighting took place in Germany

  • France emerged as the dominant European nation

  • 1648- War ended

    • Freedom of religion in Germany

    • Holy Roman Empire is dissolved

      • Over 300 states were recognized as independent nations

Revolutions in england

Revolutions in England

  • 1603- King James I (Elizabeth I’s cousin)

    • Divine Right of Kings- kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God

    • Parliament- group of representatives of English citizens

      • Crown and Parliament ruled together

Revolutions in england1

Revolutions in England

  • 1688- William and Mary

    • Glorious Revolution led to the English Bill of Rights

      • Parliament’s right to make laws, impose taxes, and declare war

      • Citizens rights to keep arms and trial by jury

      • Government based on rule of law (everyone must obey the law) and constitutional monarchy (king is head of country but laws are made by parliament)

      • Destroys the divine right theory

Label major european countries and color code them by individual religion

Label major European countries and color code them by individual religion.

  • Label your map “European Religions Circa 1560”

  • Using the maps on page RA10, 431 & 432 of your text, label the following countries (use black or standard pencil):

    Spain, France, England, Italy (Italian States)

  • Using the map on page 431, label the Netherlands.

  • And, OUTLINE & label the Holy Roman Empire Boundary in RED.

  • Make a legend for the following countries in the white space.

    • Catholic- Yellow

    • Lutheran- Orange

    • Calvinist-Blue

    • Anglican- Green

Wednesday 1 22



Bell ringer 2

Bell Ringer#2

  • Define the following:

    • Absolutism-

  • Identify the following:

    • Thomas Hobbes-

    • John Locke-

      *Use Chapter 14, Section 3-4!

Chapter 14 sec 3 4 ish not in textbook

Chapter 14 Sec 3-4(ish)& Not in Textbook

Response to Crisis: Absolutism


The World of European Culture

Response to crisis

Response to Crisis

  • Absolutism- political system where a ruler has total power

    • Monarchs gained strength

    • Divine right of kings

    • Tremendous power

    • Caused by the weakening of the church during the Renaissance and Reformation

  • Louis XIV of France

  • Frederick William the Great Elector of Prussia

  • Peter the Great of Russia

Four theories of government

Four Theories of Government

  • 4 theories of government emerged due to Absolutism

    • Force Theory

    • Evolutionary Theory

    • Divine Right Theory

    • Social Contract Theory

Force theory

Force Theory

  • A person or a small group claimed control over land and forced all within to submit to his/their rule

    • Citizens don’t have a choice

Evolutionary theory

Evolutionary Theory

  • State developed naturally out of early family dynamics.

    • “Head” of the family was the first stage of political development

Divine right theory

Divine Right Theory

  • Theory that God created the state and that God gave those of “royal birth” the right to rule.

    • Monarchy

Social contract theory

Social Contract Theory

  • An agreement or contract between the people and the government.

Social contract theory1

Social Contract Theory

  • Thomas Hobbs- 1651

    • People give up their right to be governed

    • The government will protect people’s rights

  • John Locke- 1690

    • Natural Rights- Life, Liberty, and Property

      • Inalienable- cannot be taken away by the government

    • The government protects the people’s rights and the people act reasonably toward the government

    • If the government does not hold up its end of the deal, the people will have the right to overthrow the government

    • Inspired the American Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution

Theories of government practice

Theories of Government Practice

  • Write a short story for each theory of government that accurately demonstrates the theory.

  • 25 points each

  • No less than 5 sentences each

  • Should have a beginning and an end



  • John and Mari were best friends for several years. They started dating when the were sophomores in high school and attended college together. After college, they moved to Podunk, USA and started a beef cattle farm. Their closest neighbor was 25 miles away. However, as time passed and John and Mari were now in their 50s, the town had grown to 25 families. The families regarded John as it’s community leader because he was the first person to live there and he was the oldest. They always turned to him in times of need and crisis (such as a drought).

Wednesday 1 22



Bell ringer 3

Bell Ringer#3

  • Define the following:

    • Geocentric-

    • Heliocentric-

      *Use Chapter 17 Section 1!

Chapter 17 section 1

Chapter 17 Section 1

The Scientific Revolution

Background to the revolution

Background to the Revolution

  • Medieval Era-

    • No new research

    • Relied on ancient “authorities”

      • Aristotle

  • Renaissance-

    • Humanists knew Greek and Latin

    • Studied other “authorities”

      • Ptolemy, Archimedes, Plato

Background to the revolution1

Background to the Revolution

  • 16th & 17th c. Inventions-

    • Telescope, Microscope, Printing Press

    • Allowed for new discoveries

    • Spread new ideas quickly and easily

Background to the revolution2

Background to the Revolution

  • 16th & 17th c. Mathematicians

    • Copernicus

    • Kepler

    • Galileo

    • Newton

  • “Secrets of Nature are written in the language of mathematics”

  • Developed new theories

A revolution in astronomy

A Revolution in Astronomy

  • Astronomy- Scientific study of the universe

Ptolemaic system

Ptolemaic System

  • Ptolemy- 2nd c. astronomer

    • Geocentric- earth centered

    • Series of concentric (one inside the other) spheres

      • Earth is fixed/motionless at the center

    • Spheres are made of a crystal-like/transparent substance

      • Heavenly bodies/pure orbs of light are embedded

    • 10th sphere- “prime mover” moved the other spheres

    • Beyond- Heaven and God

Ptolemaic system1

Ptolemaic System

Copernicus and kepler

Copernicus and Kepler

  • Copernicus- 16th c. mathematician

    • Heliocentric- sun-centered

    • Planets revolve around the sun (one year)

    • The moon revolves around earth

    • Earth rotates on a daily axis

  • Kepler- 17th c. mathematician

    • Laws of Planetary Motion

      • Elliptical (egg shaped) orbits around the sun

      • Sun is located at the end of the ellipse, not the middle

Geocentric v heliocentric

Geocentric v. Heliocentric



  • Galileo- 17th c. mathematician

    • Used the telescope to discover

      • Mountains on the moon

      • 4 moons revolving around Jupiter

      • Sunspots

    • Planets are material, not just orbs of light

Galileo and the catholic church

Galileo and the Catholic Church

  • Church ordered Galileo to abandon the Copernican idea.

  • Threatened Catholic thinking

  • “Contradicted” the Bible

    • Heavens no longer spiritual body of matter

    • Humans no longer center of the universe

    • God isn’t in a physical location



  • Newton- 17th c. mathematician

    • Three Laws of Motion

      • Planets and objects on Earth

    • Universal Law of Gravitation

      • Gravity- force of attraction

      • Every object in the universe is attracted to every other object

      • Planetary orbits

Wednesday 1 22



Bell ringer 4

Bell Ringer#4

  • Identify the following:

    • Robert Boyle-

    • Francis Bacon-

  • Use Chapter 17 Section 1!

Chapter 17 section 11

Chapter 17 Section 1

The Scientific Revolution

Medicine and chemistry

Medicine and Chemistry

  • Middle Ages- relied on animal dissection, not human

  • 16th Century

    • Dissected the human body

    • Two types of blood

  • 17th Century

    • Heart circulates blood through body

    • Same blood

Medicine and chemistry1

Medicine and Chemistry

  • Robert Boyle- 17th c. Chemist

    • Conducted controlled experiments

    • Boyle’s Law = volume of a gas depends on pressure

    • Named chemical elements

Women and science

Women and Science

  • Margaret Cavendish- 17th c. Scientist

    • Humans could not control nature through science

  • Maria Winkelmann- 17th c. Astronomer

    • Discovered a comet

  • Both women were going against the gender norms for women of the time

Descartes and reason

Descartes and Reason

  • Rene Descartes- 17th c. Philosopher

    • Discourse on Method, 1637

      • “ I think, therefore I am”

        • A person can only be sure of his/her existence

        • The mind cannot be doubted

      • Separation of Mind and Matter

        • Body and material world can be doubted

        • Mind is undoubting, therefore separate

    • Rationalism- reason is the chief source of knowledge

The scientific method

The Scientific Method

  • Francis Bacon- 17th c. English Philosopher

    • Scientific Method- A system for collecting and analyzing data

    • Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

  • Inductive Reasoning-

    • particular facts  general theory

    • Observe and experiment to test hypothesis

    • Wanted science to benefit industry, agriculture, and trade

Wednesday 1 22



Bell ringer 5

Bell Ringer#5

  • Identify the following:

    • John Locke-

  • Use Chapter 17 Section 2!

Chapter 17 section 2

Chapter 17 Section 2

The Enlightenment

Path to enlightenment

Path to Enlightenment

  • Enlightenment- 18th c. philosophical movement

    • Influenced by the Scientific Revolution

    • Used reason- the application of the scientific method to an understanding of all life

Path to enlightenment1

Path to Enlightenment

  • Influenced by:

    • Isaac Newton- 17th c. mathematician

      • The physical world (and everything in it) was like a machine

      • If you can understand how it works, you can understand how human society works

Path to enlightenment2

Path to Enlightenment

  • Influenced by:

    • John Locke- 17th c. philosopher

      • Tabula Rasa- everyone is born with a blank slate/mind

        • People are molded/shaped by their experiences

        • If environments change, people change

      • Natural Laws/Rights- Rights/Privileges people are born with

        • Life, Liberty, Property

        • Inalienable- cannot be taken away by the government



  • Philosophe (FEE luh ZAWF)- Enlightenment intellectuals/philosophers

    • Writers, professors, journalists, economists, social reformers

    • Nobility and middle class

    • Change the world, make it better

    • Many had differing opinions

Philosophers montesquieu

Philosophers- Montesquieu

  • Baron de Montesquieu- 18th c. French philosopher

    • 3 basic kinds of government:

      • Republics- suitable for small states

      • Despotism- appropriate for large states

      • Monarchies- ideal for moderate-size states

Philosophers montesquieu1

Philosophers- Montesquieu

  • 3 Branches of Government

    • Executive (monarch/president)

    • Legislative (parliament/congress)

    • Judicial (court system/Supreme Court)

  • Separation of Powers- branches limit and control each other through checks and balances

    • Prevents one person or group from gaining too much power

  • Influenced the US Constitution

Philosophers voltaire

Philosophers- Voltaire

  • Voltaire- 18th c. philosopher

    • Wrote pamphlets, novels, plays, letters, essays, and histories

    • Criticized Christianity

      • Called for religious tolerance

Philosophers voltaire1

Philosophers- Voltaire

  • Deism- 18th c. religious philosophy based on reason and natural law

    • A machine (God) created the universe

    • Universe was like a clock (based on Newton)

    • God created it, set it, and let it run without interference according to the natural laws/rights

Philosophers diderot

Philosophers- Diderot

  • Denis Diderot- 18th c. French philosopher

    • Encyclopedia: Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades

      • 28 volumes

      • Change people’s way of thinking

    • Attacked religious superstition

    • Supported religious toleration

    • Called for social, legal, and political improvements

    • Helped spread the idea of Enlightenment

Wednesday 1 22



Bell ringer 6

Bell Ringer #6

  • Identify the following:

    • Adam Smith-

  • Define the following:

    • Laissez-faire-

  • Use Chapter 17 Section 2!

Chapter 17 section 21

Chapter 17 Section 2

The Enlightenment

New social science

New Social Science

  • Economics

    • Adam Smith- 18th c. economist

      • Laissez-faire (LEH SAY FEHR)- “to let (people) do (what they want)”

        • If individuals are free to pursue their own economic self-interest, all of society would benefit

        • The government should not interrupt/interfere with the natural economic forces

      • Government only has three roles:

        • Protect society from an invasion

        • Defend citizens from injustice

        • Maintain infrastructure (roads, bridges, etc)

New social science1

New Social Science

  • Political Science

    • Middle Ages and Renaissance

      • Punishments were cruel and harsh to deter criminal activity

    • Enlightenment Era

      • Punishment shouldn’t be brutal

      • No capital punishment

        • Death penalty

Later enlightenment

Later Enlightenment

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau- 18th c. philosopher

    • Social Contract Theory- through a social contract, an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will

      • Govern (rule) with the consent (permission) of the governed (ruled)

    • Education, reason, and emotions were important to human development

Rights of women

Rights of Women

  • Women were believed to be inferior to men

  • Mary Wollstonecraft- 18th c. writer

    • Men should not have power over women

      • Just like a monarch shouldn’t have power over its citizens

    • Women use reason

      • Entitles them to the same rights as men

    • Equal rights- education, economics, and politics

Religion in the enlightenment

Religion in the Enlightenment

  • John Wesley- 18th c. Anglican minister

    • Founded the Methodist Church

      • Protestant

    • Taught religion in an understandable/relatable style

    • Lower and middle class English

Bell ringer 7

Bell Ringer #7

  • Describe Mary Wollstonecraft’s impact on the Enlightenment.

  • Use Chapter 17 Section 2!

Bell ringer 8

Bell Ringer#8

  • Turn in completed Bell Ringer chart.

  • Turn in Study Guide (if completed).

  • Get out extra credit (hold it until I collect them). Make sure you name is on all 3 cards!

  • Prepare for your 2ndtest!!!!!

Chapter 17 sec 3

Chapter 17 Sec 3

The Impact of the Enlightenment

7 years war alliances

7 Years War- Alliances

  • France, Austria, and Russia

  • Britain and Prussia

War in europe

War in Europe

British/Prussians v. Austrians/Russians/French

  • 1756-1763

  • Few battles, but ended in a stalemate

    • Equally matched opponents

  • All borders remained the same

War in india

War in India

Britain v. France

  • 1756-1763

  • British won due to persistence (determination)

  • French gave their territory to Britain

    • Treaty of Paris, 1763

7 years war in the americas french and indian war

7 Years War in the Americas(French and Indian War)

Britain v. French/Native Americans

  • 1756-1763

  • British-

    • 13 prosperous colonies on the Eastern Seaboard

    • Agriculture and Trade

    • Highly populated (1 million people)

  • French-

    • Canada and Louisiana Territory

    • Used for trading of fur, leather, fish, and timber

    • Low population

7 years war in the americas french and indian war1

7 Years War in the Americas(French and Indian War)

  • Two disputed areas

    • Gulf of St. Lawrence

    • Ohio River Valley

  • French gained Native American support due to trade relationships

  • England put most of its resources into the colonial war

  • Several battles led to a British victory

  • French gave their territory to Britain

    • Treaty of Paris, 1763

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