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TIERS without TEARS. Is Your Council Ready?. NEA Definition.

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Is Your Council Ready?

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NEA Definition

RtI process is “the practice of providing high quality instruction and intervention matched to student skill needs, monitoring student progress frequently to make changes in instructional goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions.”

NEA (2006) Role of General Education Teachers in the RtI Process

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RtI Core Principles

  • We can effectively teach all children

  • Intervene early

  • Use a multi-tier model of service delivery

  • Use a problem-solving methodology

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RtI Core Principles (2)

  • Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions/instruction

  • Monitor student progress to inform instruction

  • Use data to make decisions

  • Use assessments for three different purposes: (1) screening; (2) diagnostics; and (3) progress monitoring

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Reduced to it’s most base-element RTI is:Data-Based Decision Making

  • Who needs/will receive supplemental intervention? (Universal Screening)

  • What specific skills are they lacking so that we can match them to an appropriate intervention? (Diagnostic)

  • Is the chosen intervention making a difference and helping close the skills gap? (Progress Monitoring)

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Why Weekly Progress Monitoring?

  • Progress monitoring allows us to track progress toward specific and measurable goals.

  • We can determine a students trend line and compare it to the goal/aim line. We can calculate rates of desired progress versus actual progress. These things allow us to determine whether students are closing the gap and how quickly.

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Why Weekly Progress Monitoring?

  • Progress monitoring data allows us to evaluate the effectiveness (the RESPONSE) of specific interventions or combinations of interventions for groups of students and/or individual students. This will help with decision-making in the following areas:

    • Did we make a good match of intervention to students’ needs?

    • Are we getting enough “bang for our buck?”

    • Do we need to try a different intervention or further supplement the current intervention?

    • Do we need to individualize our intervention plan (move to Tier 3 and enlist the help of the RTI team)?

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Why Weekly Progress Monitoring?

  • Progress monitoring provides objective, concrete documentation to support decisions made (i.e., inclusion of students in various levels of intervention and exclusion of students from various levels of intervention).

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What are data points?

  • A data point is the result of one progress monitoring probe (e.g., number of words read correctly on a reading fluency passage, number of call-outs during a class period, number of on-task observations at twenty-second intervals within a ten-minute observation, etc.).

  • Research indicates that a minimum of 7-9 data points are required for a reliable slope estimate (trend line).

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1-5% Intensive Individualized Interventions

1-5% Intensive Individualized Interventions

5-10% Targeted Interventions

5-10% Targeted Interventions

80-90% School-Wide Interventions

80-90% School-Wide Interventions







Integrated Systems Model for Academics and Behavior

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

Decisions about tiers of support are data-based

Adapted from OSEP Effective School-Wide Interventions

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What This Means for Schools/Councils:

The School Administrator, April, 2007

  • RtI is a general education responsibility and activity along with special education, Title, ELL

  • Requires major changes in district-wide “configuration of instruction” in basic skills (reading, math) for all students

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Changes in Practices – Before Referral and Evaluation

Previous Practices

  • Wait for referral (often wait to fail)

  • Pre-referral

  • Intervention responsibility on teacher

  • Anecdotal progress reports

  • Wait to fail – had to be deficit to be eligible

RtI Practices

  • Teams review universal screening data and automatically intervene with 20-30%

  • Interventions are automatic, designed by team and delivered flexibly by building personnel

  • Progress monitoring data reviewed by team to make decisions

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Change in Practices: During Evaluation

Previous Practices

  • Most information collected after referral

  • Testing had most influence on eligibility decision

  • Little focus on other criteria than tests

  • Proving deficits, waiting to fail

RtI Practices

  • Most information already gathered when comprehensive evaluation begins

  • RtI data have most influence on eligibility decision

  • All criteria are fully analyzed

  • Diagnostic and other assessment used as needed to fill in missing information needed for intervention planning

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Changes in Practices: After Evaluation and for the IEP

Previous Practices

  • Frequently, more evaluation was needed to establish goals and services

  • If not eligible, frustration of educators, parents, and lack of student support and progress

  • No clear link between assessment and IEP, as required by IDEA

RtI Practices

  • IEP team has extensive information on student response to instruction by time eligibility is established

  • Clear, on-going link between assessment and IEP – same data methods used to progress monitor on IEP goals

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Tier 1: Core instruction - All Students we did better.”

  • Effective, scientifically-based core instruction, linked to state standards

  • Differentiated instruction and adaptation as needed to meet the needs of all students

  • Universal screening data

    • To identify student progress in core instruction and effectiveness of core

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Universal Screening we did better.”

  • Curriculum Based Measurement

    • Dynamic indicators of basic skills

    • Reading – fluency and early literacy

    • Mathematics – numeric principles and computation

    • Written Expression

    • Spelling

    • Web-based tool – e.g. AIMSWEB, V-Port

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CCS Universal Screeners we did better.”

  • MAP: Grades K-11 Reading and Math

  • AIMSweb Behavior Screener

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Tier 1: Decision Making we did better.”

  • Using data to examine effectiveness of overall practices

    • 80% of students reaching benchmark

    • No achievement gaps for subgroups

    • If no to either, strengthen core instruction (grow the green!)

  • Use of school-wide team (Building-level Team) for planning and decision making, including parent representation

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Building-Level Team Decision Making we did better.”

  • Examination of core instruction

  • Examination of effectiveness (student data – state test data and screening – “how’s that working for you?)

  • Matching instructional practices to student needs

    • Differentiation and help as needed

    • Flexible grouping

    • Flexible use of resources (including teaching staff)

    • Effective, efficient use of instructional time

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TIER 1: Benchmark/Schoolwide we did better.”

Benchmark/Core Reading Programs:

Voyager Learning/Cambium

Rigby Literacy (Harcourt Rigby Education, 2000)

Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)

The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003)

Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003)

Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)

Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/

McGraw-Hill, 2002)

Scott Foresman Reading (2004)

Success For All (1998-2003)

Wright Group Literacy (2002)

Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First

Comprehensive: Addressed all 5 areas

and included at least grades K-3

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TIER 1: School-Wide we did better.”

Discipline Programs:

Positive Behavior Support

Prosocial Discipline Programs

School-wide Discipline Committee

Attendance Programs

CCS Approach to Tier I Behavior:


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Tier 2: Supplemental, Some Students we did better.”

  • Supplemental, research-based intervention, delivered in a timely, automatic fashion to students who need it, approximately 5-10% (not referral based)

  • Use of universal screening data (e.g., DIBELS, CBM) for early identification of who is in need of more intensive intervention

  • Usually involves small group intervention, flexible grouping

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Tier 2: Supplemental, Some Students we did better.”

  • Use of regularly scheduled (at least weekly) systematic progress monitoring to evaluate student progress and determine if more intensive intervention is needed

  • Use of instructional teams (e.g., grade level teams, with data manager support) to make decisions on interventions, delivery of interventions, grouping, student progress

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Tier 2 Decision Making we did better.”

  • Apply decision rules (progress, closing gap toward meeting benchmark) to students receiving intervention

  • Move to more intensive intervention (Tier 3) as needed – by data

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Characteristics of we did better.”Tier 2 Interventions

  • Available in general education settings – increased dose of instruction for students who fail to make progress with core instruction on state benchmarks

  • Opportunity to increase exposure (academic engaged time) to core curriculum and content standards

  • Opportunity to narrow focus of the instruction to meet skill needs

  • Interventions are research-based

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Characteristics of we did better.”Tier 2 Interventions (cont.)

  • Typically delivered in small groups (with flexible grouping) by classroom teachers, with support as needed from resource specialists (e.g., Title, reading teachers)

  • Sufficient time for interventions to have an effect (10-30 weeks)

  • Frequent (at least weekly) progress monitoring to assure are examining effectiveness and student response, with opportunity to intensify as indicated by data

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Tier 3: Intensive Intervention, Few Students we did better.”

  • Intensive, individualized interventions (using problem-solving methods and research-based practices) for students who need it, approximately 1-5%

  • Use of systematic progress monitoring data, at least weekly

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Tier 3: Intensive Intervention, Few Students we did better.”

  • Additional research-based intervention, in small group or individualized, for students with insufficient progress to Tier 2 interventions

  • Use of small problem-solving team, including parents, teacher, support teacher, others as needed

  • Use when need for support, demonstrated by data, is chronic and intensive

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Tier 3: Data-based Decision Making we did better.”

  • Weekly progress monitoring data, reviewed regularly by team, using decision rules

  • Consideration of

    • Level

    • Slope (rate of progress); closing gap

    • Intensity of instruction/intervention needed to close gap/change trajectory

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Tier 3: Intensive Intervention, Few Students (cont.) we did better.”

  • Tier 3 is not special education

  • Response to Tier 3 determines if “suspect disability” (consistent with Questions and Answers from Office of Special Education Programs – clarification that do not suspect disability until track response to instruction and intervention)

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TIER 3: INTENSIVE Reading Programs we did better.”

Voyager Reading

Corrective Reading (SRA)

Language! (Sopris West)

Earobics (phonics/phonemic awareness; Cognitive Concepts)

Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency)

REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and Vocab. in Plus Program)

Soar to Success (comp.)

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CCS TIERS DEFINED… we did better.”

  • See website/RtI Overview

  • We first looked at resources we had available and determined what met the criteria of researched-based intervention

  • Next we determined the appropriateness of the interventions in accordance with the characteristics of each of the three tiers.

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CCS Progress Monitoring Tools we did better.”

  • Curriculum Based Measures (CBM)

  • Voyager (V-PORT)

  • Fast ForWord (Progress Tracker)

  • AIMSweb Probes (Stored in Share Point)

  • AIMSweb-Behavior

    (Currently under construction!)

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CCS RtI Behavior we did better.”

  • Non-negotiables

  • AIMSweb Screener (Under Construction!)

  • Behavior Forms (Under Construction!)

  • Building CHAMPIONS

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Moving to Suspecting Eligibility and Eligibility Determination

  • Time clock starts when suspect disability

  • Comprehensive evaluation means examining all data and collecting what additional data are needed (if any) to answer questions

    • In need of specialized instruction?

    • Eligible as a child with a disability?

    • If yes to both (do #1 first), move to IEP

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CCS DeterminationRtI Website

  • http://www.campbellcountyschools.org/rti/indexrti.php

  • Share Point:

    Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 is a new server program that is part of the 2007 Microsoft Office system. Your organization can use Office SharePoint Server 2007 to facilitate collaboration, provide content management features, implement business processes, and supply access to information that is essential to organizational goals and processes. You can quickly create SharePoint sites that support specific content publishing, content management, records management, or business intelligence needs. You can also conduct effective searches for people, documents, and data, participate in forms-driven business processes, and access and analyze large amounts of business data.

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Typical Implementation Activities by Year: Determination

  • Year 1: Planning, reviewing data and instructional practices and use of resources, setting up structure, communicating about benefits, building skills through professional development (PD)

  • Year 2: Implementation begins (school-wide or within grade/s), use of universal screening data, targeted interventions, continued planning and PD

  • Year 3 and Beyond: Data-based decision making, evaluating outcomes, making adjustments, continued planning

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Our Goals for 2010-2011 Determination

  • Refine Behavior RtI including screening, monitoring

  • Pilot Writing second semester in grades 3,4 and 5

  • Continued Professional Development in classroom level interventions, data analysis and RtI Protocols in general

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  • Is your school ready for RtI?

  • What are your next steps?

    (See sample needs assessments and additional tools from the KSI website)

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Questions? Determination

  • Connie Pohlgeers, Director of School Improvement

    Campbell County Schools

    [email protected]

    (859) 635-2173 ext. 107

    Thank you for coming!