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The Global Positioning System A Worldwide Information Utility. April 11, 2002 Jason Y. Kim Office of Space Commercialization U.S. Department of Commerce www.ta.doc.gov/space. Overview. What is GPS? Applications & Markets GPS Modernization International Cooperation Spectrum Protection.

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the global positioning system a worldwide information utility

The Global Positioning SystemA Worldwide Information Utility

April 11, 2002

Jason Y. KimOffice of Space CommercializationU.S. Department of Commercewww.ta.doc.gov/space

overview
Overview
  • What is GPS?
  • Applications & Markets
  • GPS Modernization
  • International Cooperation
  • Spectrum Protection
the system
The System
  • 24+ satellites operated by USAF provide 24-hour, all-weather, global coverage
  • Satellites are equipped with atomic clocks
  • Precise time signals are broadcast on L-band radio frequencies
  • Four satellite signals enable receivers to triangulate position
how it works
How It Works
  • Satellites broadcast
    • • Precise time
    • • Orbit data
    • • Satellite health
  • Receiver measures time delay from satellites, and by triangulation calculates
    • • Location
    • • Elevation
    • • Velocity
gps is a dual use system
GPS is a Dual-Use System
  • Cold War spinoff
    • Developed in 1970s-1980s to support Allied forces
    • Prominent in Gulf War, Kosovo
    • After KAL-007, civilians gained free access to Standard Positioning Service
  • Commercial use now dwarfs military use
  • GPS policy is managed at a national level by the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB)
interagency gps executive board
Interagency GPS Executive Board

Defense

Transportation

State

Commerce

Agriculture

Interior

NASA

Joint Chiefs of Staff

Justice

united states gps policy
United States GPS Policy
  • Presidential Decision Directive signed in 1996, endorsed by Congress in 1998
  • GPS Standard Positioning Service to remain free of direct user fees
  • U.S. to promote acceptance and use of GPS as a world standard
  • Selective Availability -- ended May 2000
  • IGEB to manage GPS as a national asset
united states gps policy cont d
United States GPS Policy, cont’d.
  • Encourage private sector investment in/use of GPS technologies and services
  • Promote safety and efficiency in transportation and other fields
  • Promote international cooperation in using GPS for peaceful purposes
  • Advance scientific and technical capabilities
  • Strengthen and maintain national security
global sales by market segment
Global Sales by Market Segment

$ Millions

Source: ITA, 1998

car navigation
Car Navigation
  • On-board navigation
  • Fleet management
  • Roadside assistance
  • Stolen vehicle recovery
  • Enhanced services
  • Mass market dominated by Japan
  • Dataquest: Unit sales of chips for car navigation to reach 11.3M in 2001
consumer recreational
Consumer/Recreational
  • Portable receivers for fishermen, hunters, hikers, cyclists, etc.
  • Recreational facilities -- golf courses, ski resorts
  • Integration of GPS into cellular phones
    • E-911 requirement
surveying mapping gis
Surveying/Mapping/GIS
  • Sub-centimeter accuracy
  • 100%-300% savings in time, cost, & labor
    • Control survey point: $10,000 in 1986; $250 in 1997
  • Rural electrification
  • Telecom tower placement
  • Pipelines
  • Oil, gas, and mineral exploration
  • Flood plain mapping
tracking machine control
Tracking/Machine Control
  • Package/cargo delivery
  • Fleet and asset management
  • Theft recovery
  • Public safety and services
  • Farming, mining, and construction equipment
  • DGPS/RTK required for many applications
public services
Public Services
  • City planning
  • Transportation infrastructure
    • Road Billing Network (ROBIN)
    • Snowplows
  • Emergency response
    • Law enforcement
    • Fire fighting
    • Search and rescue
    • Paramedics
    • Disaster relief
aviation
Aviation
  • GPS approved for en-route navigation
  • More efficient flight routing leads to fuel savings
  • Better tracking of aircraft enhances safety
  • Closer spacing of planes increases airspace capacity
maritime navigation
Maritime Navigation
  • GPS-based vessel tracking and traffic management maximizes effectiveness of waterways
  • Improved safety increases maritime commerce
  • Maritime DGPS service for enhanced accuracy and safety available in 34 countries
original equipment manufacturers
Original Equipment Manufacturers
  • Chipsets
  • Electronic boards
  • Antennas, components
  • Standalone receivers
military
Military
  • GPS is a recognized NATO standard
  • GPS is required on all U.S. military systems
  • Precision munitions widely used during Gulf War, Kosovo
timing
Timing
  • GPS offers an inexpensive alternative to costly, high maintenance timing equipment
  • Telecommunications network synchronization & management
    • Phones, pagers, wireless systems
    • LANs, WANs, Internet
  • Financial transactions
  • Electrical power grid management & fault location
  • Digital signatures for e-commerce
scientific research
Scientific Research
  • Monitoring geological change
    • Glaciers, tectonic plates, earthquakes, volcanoes
  • Wildlife behavior
  • Atmospheric modeling
    • Water vapor content
  • Oceanic studies
    • Tidal patterns
    • Surface mapping
  • Time transfer
environmental management
Environmental Management
  • Forestry
  • Wetlands management
  • Natural resource management
  • Fisheries boundary enforcement
  • Endangered species and habitat preservation
  • Hazardous material cleanup
    • Oil spills, toxic waste
emerging gps applications
Emerging GPS Applications
  • Entrepreneurs and scientific researchers invent new applications almost every day
  • Higher precision is necessary for many cutting-edge applications
    • Differential GPS (DGPS)
    • Relative DGPS
    • Carrier phase positioning
    • Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)
    • Post-processing
precision agriculture
Precision Agriculture
  • Maximize use of resources
    • Optimized plowing of crop rows
    • Tailored applications of seeds, fertilizer, water, pesticides
    • Improved management of land, machinery, personnel, time
    • Greater crop yields
    • Net benefit: $5-14 per acre
  • Minimize environmental impacts
    • Localized identification and treatment of distressed crops reduces chemical use
    • Precise leveling of fields prevents fluid runoff
open pit mining
Open Pit Mining
  • Enhanced management of assets, equipment
  • Progress tracked in real-time, remotely
  • Improved machine control saves time, lowers maintenance and fuel consumption, prevents accidents
  • Rapid surveying for drilling blast holes
  • Smaller, more empowered workforce
space applications
Space Applications
  • Improved orbit and attitude control for spacecraft, International Space Station
  • Space Station return vehicle
  • Advance Land Observing Satellite uses GPS to calibrate high resolution radar maps
  • Satellite formation flying
  • Space launch range safety
construction
Construction
  • Machinery, asset, and personnel management
  • Rapid surveys for laying foundation piles, etc.
  • Accident prevention
  • Remote control of machinery possible
    • Japanese volcano dam

GPS/RTK technology was used in the

construction of the Øresund Bridge

between Denmark and Sweden

the market is wide open
The Market is Wide Open
  • Civil signals are freely available, right now
  • Openly published GPS specifications allow anyone to build receivers (no licensing fees)
  • Hardware is becoming a commodity
  • Huge potential exists in value-added services
    • Software development
    • Embedded applications
    • Localized GIS databases
    • Internet integration
    • Wireless markets
unit cost of receivers is falling at 30 per year
Unit Cost of Receivers is Falling at ~30% Per Year

$800

$600

$400

$200

0

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

Source: GPS Industry Council, 1995

background
Background
  • 1996 Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) and 1998/99 Vice Presidential announcements committed US to modernization and improvement path
    • Selective Availability (SA) turned to zero NLT 2006
    • Two new civil signals and new military signals
    • Free world-wide use
  • Move from studies to action initiated in FY 2000
    • SA discontinued in May 2000
    • Deputy Secretary of Defense directed changes to existing and future satellites
    • OMB directed TOA transfer from DoT to DoD
    • Block IIF program terminated at 12 satellites and GPS III development began

Modernization Now in Full Swing

modernized signal evolution

C/A

P(Y)

P(Y)

M

M

L2C

C/A

P(Y)

P(Y)

M

M

L2C

C/A

P(Y)

P(Y)

Modernized Signal Evolution

Present Signal

(Block II/IIA/IIR)

2nd Civil; M-Code

Block IIR-M

3rd Civil

Block IIF

1176 MHz

(L5)

1227 MHz

(L2)

1575 MHz

(L1)

new civil signal rollout
Second Civil Signal (L2C) - Block IIR-M Satellites

First launch in 2003, then every satellite thereafter

Provides a redundant signal for civil users

Improved continuity in case L1 signal reception is lost

Improved accuracy via dual-frequency ionosphere correction

Wide-lane for extremely-precise local area differential GPS

Third Civil Signal (L5) - Block IIF Satellites

First launch in 2005, then subsequent satellites thereafter

Provides redundant dual-frequency capability for civil users

Improved continuity in case L1 or L2 signal reception is lost

Improved accuracy via triple-frequency ionosphere correction

Tri-lane for ultra-precise local area differential GPS

Provides an interference-resistant signal for civil users

New Civil Signal Rollout
new civil code on l2
New Civil Code on L2
  • Advantages of a New Signal
    • Improved cross-correlation properties
    • Improved tracking capability -- 3dB higher power than Coarse Acquisition (C/A) on L2
  • Signal Characteristics
    • Two codes: one with data (medium code); one without (long code)
    • Codes longer than C/A code to minimize cross correlation
    • Separated by time -- Time Division Multiplexed (TDM)
    • Overcome some limitations of current C/A coded signals
basic positioning today
Basic Positioning: Today

6-10 m

  • C/A Code on L1

Before May 2000:

25-100 m

basic positioning tomorrow
Basic Positioning: Tomorrow

Better resistance to interference

1-5 m

Eliminates need for costly DGPS in many non-safety applications

  • C/A Code on L1
  • L2C Code on L2
  • New Code on L5
advanced positioning today
Advanced Positioning: Today

10 km

2 cm accuracy

  • L1 Code and Carrier
  • L2 Carrier
  • Data Link
advanced positioning tomorrow
Advanced Positioning: Tomorrow

Faster recovery following signal interruptions (ex., under bridges)

100+ km

2 cm accuracy

Fewer base stations needed

  • L1 Code and Carrier
  • L2 Code and Carrier
  • L5 Code and Carrier
  • Data Link
gps iii

FIX FOM 1

N 42* 01” 46.12”

W 091* 38’ 54.36”

EL + 00862 ft

3

menu

1 ON

2

4

5

6

7

WPT

8

POS

9

NAV

CLR

MARK

0

OFF

NUM

LOCK

ZEROIZE

Rockwell

GPS III

The GPS III

System

Maintain Space User

Service

Second Civil Signal

Third Civil Signal

  • Relook at entire GPS architecture to:
    • Achieve long term GPS performance goals
    • Reduce long term total ownership costs
  • Ensure GPS is synergized with
    • Military and civil needs/systems
    • Possible augmentation opportunities
  • Build best GPS system for the next 30 years
gps modernization at a glance
GPS Modernization at a Glance

Increasing System Capabilities

Increasing Civil/Defense Benefit

NAVWAR Capable

Full Civil Rqmts

Add’l Capabilities

New Civil Signal – L5

L2C on L2

M-Code (Earth)

SA Set

to 0

Basic GPS

GPS III

  • GPS-III:
  • Improved Anti-jam (+20dB)
  • Increased Accuracy
  • Greater Availability
  • Controlled Integrity
  • Greater Survivability
  • Other Transformational needs
  • Blue Force Tracking
  • Nav-related Messaging
  • Responsive Ops

GPS IIA/IIR

GPS IIR-M, IIF

  • Standard Service (~100 m)
  • Precise Service (~16 m)
  • Two Nav frequencies
  • L1: Civil (C/A) &Precise (P) Code
  • L2: P-Code
  • IIR-M: Improved on all IIA capabilities and added
  • 2nd Civil Signal on L2
  • New L1 & L2 M-Code
  • IIF: IIR-M capability and:
  • Add 3rd Civil Signal on L5
international cooperation46
International Cooperation
  • U.S. GPS Policy of 1996 directed State Department to pursue cooperation with other nations to promote peaceful uses of GPS, establish it as world standard
  • Talks occurred with Russia (GLONASS), Japan (MSAS), Europe (EGNOS)
  • September 1998: Joint statement on GPS cooperation signed with Japan
u s principles for cooperation
U.S. Principles for Cooperation
  • Seamless interoperability with GPS
  • No direct user fees for safety critical services
  • Open market access (non-discrimination)
    • Equal access to signal specifications
    • Equal access to user markets (free trade)
    • Market driven competition
    • Free choice for end users
  • Spectrum protection
  • Protection of national security interests
official u s position on galileo
Official U.S. Position on Galileo
  • Modernized GPS service will be sufficient to meet user needs worldwide
  • If Galileo does proceed, the U.S. could see benefits if it is designed to be truly interoperable with GPS
  • U.S. is waiting to see what path Galileo takes -- many open questions remain unanswered
  • Basic U.S. position has not changed since first articulated in 1999
unanswered questions about galileo
Unanswered Questions about Galileo
  • How viable is the business case?
  • Will European governments help generate revenue streams through regulations and standards that effectively mandate use of Galileo?
  • Will Galileo signals interfere with GPS?
  • Will the information needed for receiver production be made equally available to all manufacturers?
  • Will Galileo take on a strategic military role?
  • How will Europe prevent hostile misuse of Galileo?
additional questions
Additional Questions
  • Will the encrypted levels of service be truly interoperable with the free, safety-of-life services?
  • As EGNOS becomes integrated into Galileo, will it continue to provide GPS data vital to aviation?
  • How will Europe protect the sensitive encryption technology used?
u s approach toward cooperation
U.S. Approach Toward Cooperation
  • Phased approach to reflect growing complexity of GPS-Galileo interaction over time
    • Phase 1: Framework agreement outlining overarching principles for cooperation during Galileo development
    • Phase 2: Establishment of working groups
    • Phase 3: Follow-on agreement addressing longer-term issues and operational interactions once Galileo goes online
  • Current U.S. stance: must have framework agreement in place before technical discussions
u s goals for cooperation
U.S. Goals for Cooperation
  • Protect interests and investments of GPS user base
    • No degradation of GPS service
    • No user fees
    • Freedom of choice for end users
    • Lower costs through free market competition
    • Interoperability and backwards compatibility
    • No constraint on future GPS evolution
  • Protect national security interests
    • DoD/NATO denial capabilities
    • No overlay of M-Code
    • Control technology transfer and proliferation
    • Move any discussion of military Galileo to NATO
  • Ensure level playing field for commerce
  • Maximize benefits of combined GPS-Galileo service
gps spectrum importance
GPS Spectrum Importance
  • Radio interference affects a wide range of users and limits growth of new capabilities and applications
  • Without backbone GPS signals, derived performances and safety of life navigation services will not function
  • GPS bands must be protected both internationally and domestically
    • ITU (one country, one vote)
    • FCC/NTIA/FAA
spectrum use
Spectrum Use
  • GPS service frequencies
    • Radionavigation satellite signals currently provided in two frequency bands: 1575 MHZ (L1) and 1227 MHz (L2)
  • New civil GPS frequencies
    • New civil signals to be added at 1227 MHz (L2) and 1176 MHz (L5)
    • L5 signal to feature higher power and ARNS protection to support safety of life navigation
    • Three civil signals will increase reliability
    • Space-to-space service (satellite control & positioning)
current spectrum issues
Current Spectrum Issues
  • International
    • Galileo proposal to overlay L1
      • U.S. objectives: No impact or degradation to current users, no overlay of future M-Code
    • Power Flux Density limits
  • Domestic
    • Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology
      • Interim FCC rules favorable to GPS -- but danger remains
      • Trying to protect GPS spectrum
    • General concerns over noise floor
for additional information
For Additional Information

www.igeb.gov

Interagency GPS Executive Board4800B Herbert C. Hoover BuildingWashington, D.C. [email protected](202) 482-5809

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