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Behavior. Autonomous Characters. Self-Directed characters "puppets that pull their own strings" -Ann Marion. Autonomous Characters. Acknowledgement

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autonomous characters
Autonomous Characters
  • Self-Directed characters

"puppets that pull their own strings" -Ann Marion

autonomous characters3
Autonomous Characters
  • Acknowledgement

Much of this material is taken from the work of Craig Reynolds. He maintains a web pages including a rich source of material of steering behavior and the consumate source on flocking.

Also see:

Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters

by Craig Reynolds

three tier hierarchy
Three-Tier Hierarchy
  • Action selection

goals and strategies “What to do”

  • Steering

guidance / motion control “How to do it”

  • Locomotion

movement generation “Getting it done”

flocks in film
Flocks in Film
  • 1987: Stanley and Stella in: Breaking the Ice, (short)

Director: Larry Malone, Producer: Symbolics, Inc.

  • 1988: Behave, (short)

Produced and directed by Rebecca Allen

  • 1989: The Little Death, (short)

Director: Matt Elson, Producer: Symbolics, Inc.

  • 1992: Batman Returns, (feature)

Director: Tim Burton, Producer: Warner Brothers

  • 1993: Cliffhanger, (feature)

Director: Renny Harlin, Producer: Carolco.

  • 1994: The Lion King, (feature)

Director: Allers / Minkoff, Producer: Disney.

flocks in film6
Flocks in Film
  • 1996: From Dusk Till Dawn, (feature)

Director: Robert Rodriguez, Producer: Miramax

  • 1996: The Hunchback of Notre Dame, (feature)

Director: Trousdale / Wise, Producer: Disney.

  • 1997: Hercules, (feature)

Director: Clements / Musker, Producer: Disney.

  • 1997: Spawn, (feature)

Director: Dipp₫, Producer: Disney.

  • 1997: Starship Troopers, (feature)

Director: Verhoeven, Producer: Tristar Pictures.

  • 1998: Mulan, (feature)

Director: Bancroft/Cook, Producer: Disney.

flocks in film7
Flocks in Film
  • 1998: Antz, (feature)

Director: Darnell/Guterman/Johnson, Producer: DreamWorks/PDI.

  • 1998: A Bugs Life, (feature)

Director: Lasseter/Stanton, Producer: Disney/Pixar.

  • 1998: The Prince of Egypt, (feature)

Director: Chapman/Hickner/Wells, Producer: DreamWorks.

  • 1999: Star Wars: Episode I--The Phantom Menace, (feature)

Director: Lucas, Producer: Lucasfilm.

  • 2000: Lord of the Rings: the Fellowship of the Ring (feature)

Director: Jackson, Producer: New Line Cinema.

seeking and fleeing
Seeking and Fleeing
  • Seeking and Fleeing Applet (Reynolds)
pursuing and avoiding
Pursuing and Avoiding
  • Pursuing and Avoiding Applet (Reynolds)
flocking demos
Flocking Demos
  • Flocking Applet (Craig Reynolds)
  • Fish Schooling (Steve Hughes)
  • Beach House (Ishihama Yoshiaki )

For more demos see Reynolds “Boids in Java”

do people flock
Do People Flock?

Social psychologist’s report the people tend to travel as

singles or in groups of size 2 to 5.

slide15

Characteristics of Groups

  • Proximity
  • Coupled Behavior
  • Common Purpose
  • Relationship Between Members
slide16

Moving Formations

  • Pairs: Side by side
  • Triples: Triangular shape
slide17

Stationary Formations

Stationary quintuple formed

Moving pair approaches

stationary triple

slide18

Locomotion Model for Walking

  • Two Parameters
    • Speed
      • Combination of step length and step rate
    • Orientation
      • Head direction for forward walking
slide19

Action Space

Accelerate Accelerate Accelerate

Turn Left No Turn Turn Right

Coast Coast Coast

Turn Left No Turn Turn Right

Decelerate Decelerate Decelerate

Turn Left No Turn Turn Right

slide20

Distributed Preference Voting

  • Delegation of voters: Constraint Proxies
  • Proxies vote on each cell of the action space
  • Votes are tallied
  • Winning cell represents best compromise among competing interests
slide21

Vote Tabulation

Pursuit Point

Tracking

Maintain Target Velocity

Inertia

1.0

Avoid Peds

Maintain

Formation

Avoid Obstacles

1.0

1.0

Centering

4.0

2.0

5.0

2.0

Electioneer

Winning Cell

slide22

A Group of Two Following a Path

Pursuit Point Tracking

Maintain Formation

walkway axis

-1.0 -1.0 +1.0

-1.0 -1.0 +1.0

-1.0 -1.0 +1.0

+1.0 +1.0 +1.0

-1.0 -1.0 -1.0

-1.0 -1.0 -1.0

pursuit point

1.0

2.0

+1.0 +1.0 +3.0

-3.0 -3.0 -1.0

-3.0 -3.0 -3.0

Election for ped 1

ped 2

ped 1

Winning vote = Accelerate/Turn Right

slide23

Avoiding an Obstacle -- Trajectory

walkway axis

walkway axis

ped 1

ped 1

ped 2

ped 2

Small look-ahead distance

Large look-ahead distance

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