Theories of Discipline

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Theories of Discipline

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1. Theories of Discipline Five Models

2. Linda Albert Cooperative Discipline Model Overview of Albert's Model ††† Linda Albert has authored several different books concerning discipline.† She is a former classroom teacher as well as counselor and columnist for Working Mother and Family magazines.† She also wrote a book called Cooperative Discipline.† Cooperative discipline is an approach designed to help students feel capable and connected, which will encourage them to contribute to their class and be successful.† It creates a class code of conduct that allows optimum opportunity for success.† Cooperative discipline also establishes a partnership with students, parents and teachers.† Among the fundamental concepts that comprise cooperative discipline are: behavior is based on choice, a sense of belonging is important, students misbehave for specific reasons, and the three Cís.† Some other fundamentals are code of conduct and conflict resolution plan.

3. Linda Albert Cooperative Discipline Assumptions: There is time to spend toward class meetings Students will make wise choices That all students fall within the four 'mistaken goals'

4. Linda Albert Cooperative Discipline Instructional Implications Uses a Democratic teaching style Develops class code of conduct/consequences with student input Develops cooperative learning experiences in the classroom Incorporates the three Cís -- Capable, Connect, and Contribute Recognize the diverse needs of students Be prepared with 70 strategies for help Post the Ďoperating principlesí which encourage classroom flow

5. Linda Albert Cooperative Discipline Teacher's Role Positive demeanor, outlook, nature Truthful through positivity Business like attitude (which may subconsciously reinforce the three Cís) Exhibit self-control and in the midst of misbehavior In the face of misbehavior, model self correction View every student as worthy and valuable

6. Cooperative Discipline Strengths Possible Weaknesses Respects individuality of students and considers students needs Develops ownership of classroom rules and expectations Offers specific strategies for management Promotes long-term goal-setting Addresses multiple causes of misbehavior Lends itself to power struggles between teacher & students when enforcing the code of conduct Requires frequent monitoring of and adherence to the code of conduct Calls for frequent class meetings

7. William Glasser Overview of Glasser's Model People, including school children, have four basic needs.† Freedom, Power/Achievement, Fun, and Love/Belonging.† If all these needs are not met on a daily basis, people begin to feel out-of-sync.† They are unable to make the best possible choices for their situations.† Glasser also believes that quality curriculum, quality learning, and quality teaching are essential elements in classroom discipline.† He encourages teachers to address their studentsí basic needs through their curricular activities.

8. William Glasser Choice Theory and The Quality School Assumptions At any given moment, people are doing the best that they can do Teachers can connect / bond with all their students Students can control their own behavior

9. William Glasser Choice Theory and The Quality School Instructional Implications †Students perform useful work †Students are asked to do the best that they can †Students use SIR, (self-evaluation, improvement, and repetition) †Studentsí basic needs are satisfied in the classroom through the curriculum.

10. William Glasser Choice Theory and The Quality School Teacher's Role Plan curriculum to meet studentsí basic needs Stress student responsibility in making good choices Do not accept any excuses Require students to make value judgments about their misbehavior Suggest alternatives to inappropriate behavior Enforce reasonable consequences Be persistent

11. Choice Theory Strengths Possible Weaknesses Teaches students decision-making as a life skill Encourages students to do their best Provides for consistent enforcement of rules and consequences Prevents discipline problems Stimulates a desire to learn Teachers must plan curriculum in order to meet students basic needs Teachers must present curriculum to students in a way that they can identify with the subject matter Assumes teacher has control over curriculum decisions Does not address severe mental, physical, or emotional disorders and exceptionalities

12. Haim Ginott Management Through Communication & Reinforcement Overview of Ginottís Model The overall classroom atmosphere should be dealt with, not individual behavior problems Teachers should address the class personally, using "I" statements "Congruent Communication" should be used with students, which basically means dealing with students using non-aggressive language Childrenís self-esteem is greatly affected by their interaction with adults

13. Haim Ginott Management Through Communication & Reinforcement Assumptions The teacherís mood will affect the overall attitude of the classroom The language a teacher uses to communicate with their students is crucial

14. Haim Ginott Management Through Communication & Reinforcement Instructional Implications Donít arbitrarily label the students Avoid using any sarcasm in the classroom Speak concisely; use direct and purposeful statements Correct students by directing them to the proper alternative

15. Haim Ginott Management Through Communication & Reinforcement Teacherís Role Correct students by directing them to proper behavior examples Be respectful of student needs; never belittle them Model civil behavior Confer dignity on the students

16. Management Through Communication & Reinforcement Strengths Possible Weaknesses This model promotes intrinsic motivation Builds confidence of the students Encourages respect Acknowledges studentís feelings Invites cooperation Time consuming Does not address extreme behavior problems Assumes that children are all intrinsically motivated

17. Alfie Kohn Creator of an Educational Vision: Beyond Discipline Overview of Kohnís Model The focus needs to shift from achievement to learning Allow students to make choices; they cannot learn to make choices if they are always being told what to do Tougher standards add pressure and do not consider individual characteristics of students Threats and bribes do offer short-term changes in behavior, but they can never help kids develop a commitment to positive values Excessive praise from the teacher can create "praise junkies"

18. Alfie Kohn Creator of an Educational Vision: Beyond Discipline Assumptions When Kids focus on grades and achievement, it takes away from their focus on learning A child that is always told how to behave and what to do doesnít get the opportunity to make choices Cooperation is an important part of learning Misbehavior in the classroom is not due to children who are insufficiently controlled; it is due to a curriculum that is insufficiently engaging

19. Alfie Kohn Creator of an Educational Vision: Beyond Discipline Instructional Implications Make your walls an equitable display of the studentís work.† Rid them of rules.† The more Ďownershipí the kids can have with the walls, the better Engage and challenge your students, but donít overstress them Discovery learning is the key to development Learning through discussion Replace grades with checklists, so that studentís sub-skills are rated

20. Alfie Kohn Creator of an Educational Vision: Beyond Discipline Teacherís Role Be a facilitator --- not a dictator or instructor Give students ownership with decision making, roles, and responsibilities Do not create an environment of power, control, or hierarchical relationships Put an end to congratulatory remarks; stop saying "good job"

21. Creator of an Educational Vision: Beyond Discipline Strengths Possible Weaknesses Empowerment --- students learn how to make choices Encourages high level thinking Paints optimistic picture of learning and classroom interaction No standard model to follow, no clear and specific steps to achieve this ideal Tells you what is wrong (with standards and norms), but we are left wondering what is right Assumes that every student in a classroom will respond positively to his ideas

22. Barbara Coloroso Inner Discipline Overview of Colorosoís Model Barbara Coloroso is the author of Kids are Worth It! Giving Your Child the Gift of Inner Discipline, and Parenting with Wisdom in Times of Chaos and Confusion.† She is also the co-author to publications on topics about troubled students.† Her model of classroom management focuses on what she calls Inner Discipline.† Inner discipline involves treating all students with respect, and letting them make decisions.† With inner discipline, teachers serve as guides, helping students manage themselves in the classroom.

23. Barbara Coloroso Inner Discipline Vocabulary Backbone teachers provide support and structure necessary for children to act responsibly by reasoning through problems. Brickwall teachers are rigid, use power and coercion to control. Jellyfish teachers have little or no recognizable structure, consistency, or guidelines. Punishment is treatment that is psychologically hurtful and unjust to students and likely to provoke anger, resentment and additional conflict. Discipline shows students what they have done wrong and gives them ownership of the problem; it provides options and opportunities to solve the problems and in so doing leaves the students' dignity intact.

24. Barbara Coloroso Inner Discipline Vocabulary Ė cont. Inner discipline is the ability to behave creatively, constructively, cooperatively, and responsibly. Natural consequences are consequences that occur naturally after a decision the student makes. Reasonable consequences are consequences that have been jointly agreed upon by the teacher and students.† They are invoked for transgressions of rules. The RSVP test reminds teachers that consequences must be Reasonable, Simple, Valuable, and Practical. The three cons are ploys students typically use in hopes of escaping consequences.† The ploys may be: (1)begging, bribing, weeping and wailing, (2)anger and aggression, and/or (3)sulking.

25. Barbara Coloroso Inner Discipline Teacher Behaviors Teachers allow students to make decisions and grow from the results of those decisions. Teachers bring students to situations that call for decisions, ask them to make the decision (while the teacher provides the guidance without judgment), and let them experience the results of their decision. Teachers provide a safe and nurturing environment in which to learn and deal with consequences. Teachers must make an unconditional commitment to their students. Teachers abide by the Golden Rule: "I will not treat a student in a way I myself would not want to be treated." Teachers should never rescue their students by solving thorny problems for them. Teachers should say, "You have a problem... What is your plan?" Teachers offer advice and support - options but not solutions. Teachers should not give in to the three cons.

26. Barbara Coloroso Inner Discipline Instructional Implications Teachers function as guides and support students in order to help them manage their own discipline. Teachers treat students with respect and give them power and responsibility to make their own decisions. Teachers should not use punishment, only discipline when it is needed. Students have a great deal of control in the classroom. Teachers must teach students to think for themselves in order for them to learn to discipline themselves.

27. Barbara Coloroso Inner Discipline Instructional Implications-cont. Teachers believe and treat students like they have the right to be in school, but students also have the responsibility to respect the rights of those around them. Disputes in the classroom need to be solved with win-win situations. Natural and reasonable consequences are associated with rules and are to be allowed or invoked by the teacher consistently when rules are violated. RSVP tests should be administered to check consequences. Teachers must remain firm when consequences are administered (they cannot change their mind once discipline plans are made). Teachers must work to preserve their dignity, as well as the dignity of students when dealing with discipline.

28. Inner Discipline Strengths Possible Weaknesses The model places emphasis on the dignity of students. If used correctly, the model teaches inner discipline. The model asserts that every child is "worth it." The model stresses that teachers are facilitators. Students learn to solve problems on their own without always relying on a teacher. Students learn problem solving skills. Students are left to make their own choices and experience the consequences. The model emphasizes discipline, not punishment. The model does not give suggestions about how to deal with specific or major discipline problems. A great deal of time is required to complete the steps of identifying, defining, solving, and re-evaluating. The model provides little practical application information. The model assumes that students will learn from incorrect decisions and be deterred by consequences. The model asks the teacher to give up control and let students make incorrect decisions. The model requires students to have higher-order thinking skills to complete the decision-making process. There is the question of whether the model is developmentally appropriate for early elementary grades. The model seemingly focuses more on parenting than teaching.

29. Classroom Management Theorists: Linda Albert-Cooperative Discipline William Glasser-Noncoercive Discipline Haim Ginott-Building Classroom Discipline Alfie Kohn - Beyond Discipline Barbara Coloroso-Inner Discipline

30. References: Compiled by Brad Broos, Stephanie Coe, Deana Hipwell, and Anissia Jenkins

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