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Kenneth L. Pike. Phonemics. Phonemes / / Abstract contrastive units in a language Never pronounced Realized by one or more allophones Allophone [ ] Sound units that are a physical reality Always pronounced Variation of a phoneme. Two possibilities. Allophones of separate phonemes

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Kenneth L. Pike

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Kenneth l pike

Kenneth L. Pike


Phonemics

Phonemics

  • Phonemes / /

    • Abstract contrastive units in a language

    • Never pronounced

    • Realized by one or more allophones

  • Allophone [ ]

    • Sound units that are a physical reality

    • Always pronounced

    • Variation of a phoneme


Two possibilities

Two possibilities

  • Allophones of separate phonemes

    /t//th/

    [t][th]

  • Allophones of the same phoneme

    /t/

    [t][th]


Allophones of separate phonemes

Allophones of separate phonemes

  • Proof

    • Minimal pair

      • “sip” and “zip”

        /s//z/

        [s][z]


Allophones of separate phonemes1

Allophones of separate phonemes

  • Are [h] and [?] allophones of separate phonemes?

    [kahon]“box”[?umagos]“to flow”

    [humagos]“to paint”[ka?on]“to fetch”

  • YES

    /h//?/

    [h][?]


Allophones of separate phonemes2

Allophones of separate phonemes

  • Are [p] and [b] allophones of separate phonemes?

    [peso] “(monetary unit)” [beso] “kiss”

    [kompa] “mate” [komba] “skipping”

  • YES

    /p//b/

    [p][b]


Allophones of the same phoneme

Allophones of the same phoneme

  • Proof

    • Complementary distribution

      • The allophones never occur in the same environment

        /the man/

        [bus driver][security guard]


Allophones of the same phoneme1

Allophones of the same phoneme

  • Are [t] and [th] allophones of the same phoneme in English?

  • YES

    /t/

    [t][th]

  • But what about in Hindi?


T and t h in hindi

[t] and [th] in Hindi

[tal] “beat”

[thal] “plate”

  • Allophones of separate phonemes

    /t//th/

    [t][th]


Different mappings

Different mappings

  • English

    /t/

    [t][th]

  • Hindi

    /t//th/

    [t][th]


How to do phonemic analysis

How to do phonemic analysis

  • Examine your data

    • The question will ask about certain sounds; pay special attention to those sounds. Don’t get confused by extra data. Pronounce each item.

  • Look for minimal pairs involving those sounds

    • If you find one, you can conclude that the sounds are allophones of separate phonemes

  • If there are no minimal pairs, list the environments in which each sound occurs

    • If they never occur in the same environment, you can conclude that they are allophones of the same phoneme


Greek

Greek

  • Are [k] and [x] allophones of the same phoneme or allophones of separate phonemes?

    [kano]“do”[kori]“daughter”

    [xori]“dances”[xrima]“money”

    [xano]“lose”[xufta]“handful”

    [krima]“shame”[kufeta]“bonbons”

    [ceri]“candle”[kali]“charms”


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • [k] and [x] are allophones of separate phonemes

    /k//x/

    [k][k]


Sango

Sango

  • Are [r] and [l] allophones of the same phoneme or allophones of separate phonemes?

    [tere]“body”[kiri]“return”

    [wali]“woman”[wara]“like”

    [koli]“man”[nila]“then”

    [gere]“leg”[doli]“elephant”


List the environments

List the environments

[r][l]

e___ea___i

e___eo___i

i___io___i

a___ai___a


Conclusion1

Conclusion

  • [r] and [l] are allophones of the same phoneme

    /l/

    [r][l]


Other considerations

Other considerations

  • Suspicious pairs

    • Consider only “suspicious” pairs that have some features in common

  • Free variation

    • Common in all languages


Phonetic reality filtered by your phonemic grid

Phonetic reality filtered by your phonemic grid


Phonetic reality filtered by your phonemic grid1

Phonetic reality filtered by your phonemic grid


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