Ground Water g110. Lecture prepared by Bob Hall Revised 8/6/2000. Points to Be Covered on Ground Water. How is ground water formed? What are the zones of subsurface water and their characteristics? What is a water table, and how is it configured in humid vs arid climates?
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Lecture prepared by Bob Hall
pores filled with both air and water
Water held against gravity by surface tension
Zone of Saturation
pores filled only with water
Water drained through soil under influence of gravity.
Ground WaterZones of Subsurface Water
R = Recharge Area
R = Recharge area
in a Humid climate
Porosity: % by volume of an earth material that is pore space.
Primary porosity depends upon:
- shape of grains
- arrangement of grains
- size distribution
Permeability: ability of an earth material to transmit water
- degree and size of interconnecting pores between larger poresHow does ground water move?
- degree of fracturing
- amount of solution (for limestone)
clay 45-55 %
limestone 1-10 (or larger)
An explanation of the factors determining the rate (velocity) of ground water flow.
V = K (h/l) where K = coefficient of
dh/dl = hydraulic gradient
in a humid climate
A permeable, water-containing unit.
- Water enters from recharge.
- Temporarily stored.
- Leaves by flow to streams (baseflow) or springs, or to wells
off at any point.
under atm pressure.
down from R.A.
- Water under hydrostatic
- Water rises; well may
Florida Sinkhole wells?
Terra Rossa Filling Grike wells?
Cone of depression wells?
Secondary p & p
Zone of aeration
Zone of saturationTerms Used in the Study of Ground Water
Know how groundwater occurs and moves.
Know the factors that determine the direction and rate of movement.
Know how we can use groundwater safely, as well as the dangers of using it unwisely.