social institutions: family and religion

social institutions: family and religion PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Social Institutions. Organized patterns of beliefs and behavior that are centered on basic social needs.Cultural universal. Functionalist View. 5 major tasksReplacing personnelTeaching new recruitsProducing and distributing goods and servicesPreserving orderProviding and maintaining a sense of purpose.

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social institutions: family and religion

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1. Social Institutions:Family and Religion Chapter 8

3. Functionalist View 5 major tasks Replacing personnel Teaching new recruits Producing and distributing goods and services Preserving order Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose

4. Family A set of people who are related by blood, marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship), or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society.

5. Family Variations Nuclear – a married couple and their unmarried children

6. Family Variations Extended – a family unit that includes parents and children, as well as other kin.

7. Marriage A legally sanctioned relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, as well as sexual activity, and childbearing.

8. Who to Marry? Endogamy – marriage between people of the same social category Exogamy – refers to marriage between people of different social categories

9. How Many to Marry? Monogamy- marriage uniting two partners Polygamy – marriage that unites three or more people Polygyny- a man with multiple wives Polyandry – a woman with multiple husbands Serial monogamy – having several monogamous marriages over a lifetime

10. Kinship The state of being related to others

11. Residential Patterns Patrilocality – living with or near the husband’s family Matrilocality – living with or near the wife’s family

12. Descent Refers to the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations

13. Descent Patrilineal – kinship traced through father’s side of the family

14. Descent Matrilineal – kinship traced through mother’s side of the family

15. Descent Bilateral – kinship traced through both the father’s side and mother’s side

16. Authority Patriarchy Male decision making Matriarchy Female decision making Egalitarian Spouses are equal

17. Structural-Functional Analysis Family performs many vital tasks Ogburn (1934) Reproduction Protection Socialization Regulation of sexual behavior Affection and companionship Provision of social status

18. Conflict Analysis Family perpetuates inequality Property and inheritance Patriarchy Race and ethnicity

19. Interactionist Analysis How individuals share and experience family life Building emotional bonds Building a way to view the world and interact

20. Divorce Causes of divorce Individualism Romantic love subsides Women less dependent on men Divorce is socially acceptable Legally easier to get

21. Alternate Family Forms One-parent families Cohabitation Gay and lesbian couples Singlehood

22. Transition to Parenthood Little anticipatory socialization Only limited learning during pregnancy Transition quite abrupt Society lacks clear and helpful guidelines for successful parenthood

23. Religion Social institution involving beliefs and practices based upon a conception of the sacred Faith – belief anchored in conviction rather than scientific evidence

24. Religion Sacred – that which people set apart as extraordinary, inspiring a sense of awe and reverence Profane – that which is an ordinary element of everyday life Ritual – formal ceremonial behavior

25. Structural-Functional Durkheim identified 3 functions Social cohesion Social control Providing meaning and purpose

26. Conflict Analysis Marx – religion tends to legitimize inequality and the status quo

27. Interactionist Analysis Places life and experiences in a “cosmic frame of reference” Frames how individuals view the world

28. Religious Behavior Animism – belief that elements of the natural world are conscious life forms that affect humanity

29. Organization of Religious Behavior 4 basic forms Ecclesia (state church)– a religious organization that claim most to all members of a society and is recognized as the official religion Denomination – large, organized religion not officially linked with the state

30. Organization of Religious Behavior Sect – a relatively small religious group that stands apart from the larger society New Religious Movement (Cult) – a religious organization that is substantially outside the cultural traditions of a society

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