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Did NATO Military Action Against Yugoloslavia Violate Just War Theory?. By:YES: Kristi and Jen NO:Jill and Sharon. The Just War Theory. The Just War Theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought The justification can be either theoretical or historical

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Did NATO Military Action Against Yugoloslavia Violate Just War Theory?

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Did nato military action against yugoloslavia violate just war theory l.jpg

Did NATO Military Action Against Yugoloslavia Violate Just War Theory?

By:YES: Kristi and Jen

NO:Jill and Sharon


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The Just War Theory

  • The Just War Theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought

  • The justification can be either theoretical or historical

  • The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and forms of warfare

  • The historical aspect, or the “just war tradition” deals with the historical body of rules or agreements applied (or at least existing) in various wars across the ages


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Just War Theory, Continued

  • In general terms, the Just War Theory demands:

    • That there must be sufficient and just reason for going to war,

    • There must be legitimate authority to declare war

    • It must be waged by appropriate means

    • There must be prospects of success

    • And all other avenues must have been previously exhausted

    • Levels of violence should not exceed what is necessary to achieve the mission at hand

    • War must end in a peace better than the situation before the war started


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NATO

  • Stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • Comprised of most of the countries of Western Europe, Canada and United States

  • They agreed to come to the assistance of any member should it be attacked

  • Built against the threat of Warsaw Treaty Organization in 1949

  • New Strategic Concept: developed after the Cold War, which reduced standing military forces and allowed them to focus on crisis response

  • Had 16 members since 1982. In 1999, Poland, Hungary and Czech Republic joined

  • Has achieved a higher level of political and military cooperation among its membership than virtually any other organization in the world


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Yugoslavia, Location


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Yugoslavia

  • Yugoslavia was divided into eight provinces after WWII

  • Various religions in the state (influenced by surrounding countries) i.e. Christian in Croatia, Catholic in Serbia, Orthodox in Serbia and Macedonia, and Islam in Kosovo and Albania

  • Serbia/Montenegro were the core of Yugoslavia and had the majority of power in the region

  • Slovenia and Croatia felt isolated and declared their independence in 1991  war started

  • War spread to Bosnia in 1992

  • 1995: Dayton Agreement brought peace

  • War started again in Kosovo in 1999


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Kosovo

  • Kosovo is in Serbia with mostly Albanian people

  • Until 1989, they had autonomy

  • 1989, President Slobodan Milosevic removes autonomy and placed Kosovo under Serbian control

  • Albanians forced out of political roles, ethnic cleansing and discrimination begins

  • 1998, Serbian police/military versus Kosovo and Albanian forces

  • 1500 deaths and 400,000 refugees

  • May 28, 1998, NATO meets to discuss involvement

  • NATO’s Objectives:

    • Achieve a peaceful resolution

    • Stabilize and secure neighbouring countries (especially Albania and Macedonia)

  • Oct. 13, 1998, NATO orders air strikes but at the last minute, Milosevic agrees to comply and back off so they’re called off

  • UN gets involved

  • UN Security council resolution 1199:

    • Calls for ceasefire

    • Limits number of Serbian troops allowed in Kosovo verification Mission (KUM) to observe compliance

    • NATO agrees to observe with aerial surveillance


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Kosovo, Continued

  • Violence returns in 1999

  • Jan. 29, 1999, Nation Contact Group meets and encourages negotiation between parties

  • Jan. 30, 1999, NATO warns Milosevic force will be used if he doesn’t back off

  • Feb. 6-23, 1999, negotiations in Rambouillet, France – NATO makes demands on Serbia

  • March 15-18, another peace negotiation

    • Kosovo and Albania agree to sign a drafted peace proposal

    • Serbia refuses

  • Serbia moves more forces into Kosovo (they’re having no success there because of Serbian opposition)

  • March 23, 1999, Operation Allied Force begins

  • NATO bombing campaign lasts for 78 days (aerial campaign, no ground troops deployed)

  • June 9, 1999, agreement made between NATO and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

  • June 10, Serbian forces begin pulling out of Kosovo (completely gone by June 20)


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Kosovo, Continued

  • June 12, 1999: NATO and UN troops begin “clean-up”

  • K-For: 50,000 people under unified control contributed by 12 countries (help with clean-up)

  • By the end of the war, refugees are scattered:

    • Albania430,000 people

    • Macedonia230,000 people

    • Montenegro64,000 people

    • Bosnia21,500 people

    • Other61,000 people

  • 58,000 Kosovars are homeless

  • By the end of May, 1999, 1.5 million people (90% of Kosovo’s population) had been expelled from their homes

  • 225,000 Kosovar men missing (5000+executed)

  • Animosity between people still exists

  • There are still many unexploded mines and cluster bombs

  • Economic downturn (civilian infrastructure destroyed), lots of unemployment

  • Milosevic remained in power until his government was overthrown in 2002 by popular uprising

  • New elections brought Vojuslav Kostunica to power


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Yes Side: Components of Just War Theory That Have Been Violated

  • Legitimate Authority

  • Waged by Appropriate Means

  • All Other Attempts Have Been Made

  • Levels of Violence Should Not Exceed What is Necessary to Achieve the Mission at Hand

  • War Must End in a Peace Better Than the Situation Before The War Started


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Yes Side: NATO’s Mistake

  • The Double Standard:

    • Fought to free Kosovo but ignored the ethnic cleansing in Chechnya, East Timor, etc.

    • Could this be because Kosovo has some of the richest mineral resources in Europe?

  • Bombing Inaccuracies:

    • Flying high reduced accuracy of bombs hitting targets (as much as 2/3 km off)

    • Densely populated and residential areas became targets

    • Chinese embassy bombed

    • Civilian infrastructure targeted (ie. Hospital, water plants, bridges, apartments)

  • One month of NATO bombing caused more damage than by the Nazis occupation of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945


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Yes: NATO’s Mistakes, Continued

  • Depleted Uranium:

    • 10 tonnes of DU used in shells by NATO illegally

    • DU causes long term damage to lungs and kidneys and may lead to cancer

  • Cluster Bombs

    • 1392 dropped: not all exploded so they are still causing casualties

    • Broke Geneva Convention: “Equipment deployed in battlefield must not be lethally effective after peace treaty is signed”

    • UN formed MACC (a mine cleaning association) to find cluster bombs: 47+ dead, 97+ wounded and many are still unfound in less frequented areas of the country


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No Side: Components of Just War Theory That Have Been Obeyed

  • There must be sufficient and just reason for going to war

  • There must be legitimate authority to declare war

  • It must be waged by appropriate means

  • There must be prospects of success

  • All other avenues must have been previously exhausted

  • Levels of violence should not exceed what is necessary to achieve the mission at hand


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No Side: Milosevic’s Reign

  • Discrimination towards ethnic Albanians

  • Forced deportation by the thousands

  • In 12 weeks, more than 850,00 ethnic Albanians were expelled from Kosovo by Serbian military, police and paramilitaries

  • Houses looted, entire villages burned

  • Refugees robbed and beaten

  • Thousands of women and some children raped-systematic and organized rape

  • Adult males detained and executed by the hundreds

  • Arbitrary arrest and detentions

  • Contamination of water wells

  • Target killings and mass graves

  • Between March 24-June 12, 1999


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Pictures


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More Pictures


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The End…


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