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IT and Women’s Labor Force Participation in the Middle East . NEC Corporation Yasushi Kaito, Advisor December 8, 2004. Contents. 1. Major Issues in the Middle East 2. The Middle East Economic Growth 3. IT Industry and the New Economy & Society under Globalization 4. Proposal.

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it and women s labor force participation in the middle east

IT and Women’s Labor ForceParticipation in the Middle East

NEC Corporation

Yasushi Kaito, Advisor

December 8, 2004

contents
Contents

1. Major Issues in the Middle East

2. The Middle East Economic Growth

3. IT Industry and the New Economy & Society under

Globalization

4. Proposal

slide3

1. Major Issues in the Middle East

Slow

Economic Growth

GDP growth/person

1990 - 2000

0.7%

(Asia: 6%)

Small

Foreign Direct

Investment

Small

Economic Scale

$600Bil

(Equal to Spain)

Uneven Distribution

of Wealth

*****

Declining Middle Class

High

Unemployment

2003: 13.3%

Youth: 27%

(World Avg.:6.2%)

Regional

Instability

Brain Drain

25% of 300,000

college grads flow

outside the region

R&D

0.2% of GDP,

Government-lead,

Only 2% to IT field

Isolation from

Global Trends

Materialistic/

Power-oriented

Youth Population

Under 20: 45.9%

Under 35: 70.8%

Education System

*****

Productivity

Gender

Inequality

Data:Arab Human Development Report 2003, UNDP

US Bureau of Census 2002

ILO Global Employment Trends

slide4

1-1.Small Foreign Direct Investment

Japan

Middle East

  • Foreign Direct Investment (2000):
  • $2.2Bil
  • (only 1% of total investments to
  • developing countries)
  • - FDI against GDP

・ Japan, EU & USA share trends of FDI balance

(%)

EU

USA

Japan

Data: 2002 JETRO White Paper on International Trade

& Foreign Direct Investment

World Bank MENA Development Report

slide5

1-2. Gender Inequality

Labor Force Gender Parity Index:

Ratio of the percentage of women who are

economically active to the percentage of

men who are

32

25

18

14

12

10

9

8

7

6

4

4

2

Data: 2004 World Development Indicators

Middle East

slide6

1-3. Japanese Women’s Advancement into Society

Female

Employment Rate for Women

Male

Data: The Yomiuri Shimbun, others

slide7

2. The Middle East Economic Growth

2-1. GDP Comparison by Region: 1980-2002

(Billion $)

Latin America & Caribbean

Remarkable growth in manufacturing

World’s manufacturing base

Immense market

East Asia & Pacific

Europe & Central Asia

South Asia

Middle East & North Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

2002

Data: 2004 World Development Indicators

slide8

2-2. Analysis on the Slow Economic Growth

Economic Growth

Annual Avg. Growth (1990 - 2002)

Middle East: 3.2%

(East Asia: 7.3%)

(Developing country avg.: 3.4%)

Per Capita Growth (1990 - 2000)

Middle East: 0.7%

(East Asia: 6.0%)

(Developing country avg.: 2.0%)

Human Capital

Physical Capital

(Capital Development)

Natural Capital

(Natural Resources)

Total Factor Productivity

(Technology) + (Institution)

・World share of product exports

4% (1990)3% (2002)

・% of high-tech product exports

2% (17%)

・Articles on science & technology

3,617 (5% of developing

countries)

Vs. GDP percentage

・Foreign capital vs. inward investment

0.9% (2.5%)

 ・Private investment

50.2% (55.9%)

・Rich energy resources

・ Adult literacy (M/F)

76%/55%

(83%/70%)

・Female Employment Rate

33.8% (60.3%)

・Education does not meet

societal needs

×

×

×

( ):Developing country avg.

( ):Developing country avg.

Adult: 15 years or older

( ):Developing country avg.

* Data as of 2002

Data: 2004 World Development Indicators

slide9

3. IT Industry & the New Economy and Society under Globalization

CHANCES

1. New Product/

New Market

2. End of Inflation

3. Improvement of

Productivity

STRESS

Adaptation to New

Rules:

*Speed

*Borderless

*Knowledge-Intensive

*Severe Competition

New World Economy

Technological

Innovation

Economic

Innovation

Service

Knowledge-centered Society

IT Industry

Reference Data:

“High Noon,” J.F.Rischard

 “Strategies for Industries in Japan,”Yoko Ishikura, etc.

slide10

3-1. Characteristics of the IT Industry

Virtual

Creating

New Society

Anywhere

Regardless of

Workplace

IT Industry

Added Value

Localization

Localized Business

Anytime

Regardless of

Working Time

Human Power

Affordable

Low Start-Up Cost

Networking

Borderless Business

Anyone

Regardless of

Nationality/Gender

  • IT Industry:
  • Great Potential for Growth
  • “Women-Friendly”
  • Huge Capacity for Absorbing Labor Force
slide11

Virtual Call Center

3-2. Women-Friendly IT Works

IT Industry:

- Offers chances to skilled women (foreign language, law, finance, etc)

- Allows homemakers to work at home (SOHO)

Work-at-Home

・Data Input

・Translation

・Call Center

Education-

Related

・IT Education

Designing

・Web Site

・Contents

Technology-

Oriented

・Software Design

・IT Consulting

Entry-Level

Troubleshooting

-No Customer Info Required

-No Advanced Skill Required

Customer

slide12

4. Proposal

We should deepen business interactions between

Japan & the Middle East in the field of human capital

through the following activities:

1) Work on issues shared by Japan and the Middle East to increase

women’s participation in the IT society

- Set up a place for interactions among women in IT businesses

in Japan and the Middle East;

2) (In future) Establish venture capital funds and foster female IT

entrepreneurs

(FYI) Japanese Community Site for Improving Women’s Activities:

“eWoman” http: //www.ewoman.co.jp

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