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This presentation may be downloaded at http mciu org spjvweb changing3 ppt l.jpg

This presentation may be downloaded at:

Research makeover improving and elevating student research l.jpg

Research Makeover:Improving and Elevating Student Research

Joyce Kasman Valenza

Carol Rohrbach

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Workshop goals

Strategies for:

  • Changing the questions—the assignment

  • Organizing for focused research

  • Creating a pathfinder

  • Thesis development and coaching

  • Synthesis

  • Rubric makeovers

  • Examining student work: the tuning protocol

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Dig back in your memory:

Describe the best (most exciting, pleasurable, useful) learning experience your students find most memorable?

The experts tell us meaningful learning involves common characteristics l.jpg

Choice (time, topic, place)

Small groups

Self paced

Useful / Applied

Personal / intrinsic motivation







Solves real problems /legitimate useful questions


Life-long relevance

The experts tell us meaningful learning involves common characteristics:

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What will the work force expect of our students?

  • to research possible causes of problems.

  • to isolate factors that are possible causes of problems.

  • to arrive at resolutions to problems by brainstorming with other people.

  • to search for information stored in computer files by using electronic data research skills.

  • to write clearly to convey complex information to other people to describe situations or events and to make recommendations.

  • to interpret correlations by comparing two sets of data

    • Disney Learning Partnership

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What are the issues with student research?


  • Obstacles

  • Frustrations

  • Professional development issues?

  • Beliefs

  • Hopes and expectations

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So, what’s the big deal about research?

It’s just

another project!

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Research is a real - life skill

Research projects are training grounds for adult problem-solving and decision-making

  • Which car should I buy and how much should I pay?

  • Which candidate will best represent my interests?

  • How can I convince my boss to accept my proposal?

  • How should we work together to rebuild Iraq?

  • Who do I believe?

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No more reports!

  • The . . .

    • country

    • state

    • president

    • animal

      report has already been done (very well) by any number of encyclopedias.

      Why should we ask you to waste your time?

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Support or reject or critique











Thoughtful research asks students to:

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We are asking for . . . more meaningful, and more interesting research!

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What our teachers expect


  • All research is inquiry-driven, based on good questions (even though learning may be differentiated)

  • Perfect bibliographic format

  • Defense of source choices in annotations

  • Quality, balanced sources. No research holes!

  • Variety of access tools--search engines, subject directories, databases, books

  • Original work, your own voice. No plagiarism!

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Designing the assignment

  • Research rubric

  • Planning checklist

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Inquiry: Good research begins with good questions!Death to “topical” research!!!(Topical research doesn’t get into their systems!)Death to “so what” questions!!!MAR*TEC Video

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Rethinking reports

  • Learn NC offers amazing makeover ideas!

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  • Fat questions require thought, discussion, and exploration, and may not have definite answers.

  • Skinny questions require little more than a simple yes or no, a one-word answer, a fact. They require little time or thought. They inspire little growth. Their answers are memorized rather than learned.

  • Inquirer column on questions

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Start with good questions

  • “Which one”

  • “How”

  • “What if”

  • “Should”

  • “Why”


    History Question Brainstormer

    Thesis Generator

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Ambush question makeovers

  • Planets

  • Elements

  • Presidents

  • States

  • Nations

  • Animal

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Unlikely Pairs

  • The first part of the unlikely pair will be an American dramatist . . .

  • For the second part of the pair, you will choose an American novelist. You should choose a novel you have read for English 10 or 11, or another if you get it approved.

  • Develop an essential question about the pair.

    • Example: How do Arthur Miller and J.D. Salinger similarly and differently depict reality versus illusion?

  • This question will direct your research and should be honed accordingly. Focus your question as you move forward:

    • How do Arthur Miller and F. Scott Fitzgerald offer indictments of the American Dream through Willy Loman and Jay Gatsby, respectively?

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Some Springfield examples

  • What I Did During the War

  • Recipe for a Global Issue

  • Senior Art Unit

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Organizing for inquiry:Role of scaffolds and organizers

  • Gathering

  • Note-taking

  • Synthesizing

  • As in-process assessments

    It doesn’t come easily!

    Current events organizer

    Debate organizer

    Middle East / Middle East WebQuest

    Questions for lit crit

    Scaffold sites

    Reception Scaffolds

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Making over the thesis

  • Thesis development

  • Thesis Role Play

  • Inspiring Higher Level Thought in Student Research

  • Thesis Generator

  • History Brainstormer

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Process for developing the thoughtful thesis






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What does a thesis look like?

2 Simple equations:

Specific topic + Attitude/Angle/Argument = Thesis

(or 3 Ts: Topic + ‘Tude = Thesis)

What you plan to argue

+ How you plan to argue it

= Your thesis

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Be flexible!

The evidence may lead you to a conclusion you didn't

think you'd reach.

It is perfectly okay to

change your thesis!

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How will you find a thesis?

As you read look for:

  • Interesting contrasts or comparisons or patterns emerging in the information

  • Something about the topic that surprises you

  • Ideas that make you wonder why?

  • Priorities you can weigh

  • Something an "expert" says make you respond, "no way! That can be right!" or "Yes, absolutely. I agree!"

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Why, a thesis?

  • A thesis statement declares what you intend to prove.

  • A thesis gives your work focus.

  • A good thesis statement makes the difference between a thoughtful research project and a simple retelling of facts.

  • It makes the work worth doing!

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Try these five tests on your own tentative thesis:

1. Does the thesis inspire a reasonable reader to ask “how?” or “why?”

2. Would a reasonable reader NOT respond with "Duh!" or "So what?" or "Gee, no kidding!" or "Who cares?"

3. Does the thesis avoid general phrasing and/or sweeping words such as "all" or "none" or "every"?

4. Does the thesis lead the reader toward the topic sentences (the subtopics needed to prove the thesis)?

5. Can the thesis be adequately developed in the required length of the paper or project?

If you cannot answer "YES" to these questions, what changes must you make in order for your thesis to pass these tests?

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Are these are good thesis statements? (Use the five tests to decide.)

  • Terrorism should not happen.

  • The causes of the Civil War were economic, social, and political.

  • The Simpsons represents the greatest animated show in the history of television.

  • Often dismissed because it is animated, The Simpsons treats the issue of ethnicity more powerfully than didthe critically praised All In The Family.

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Making over Synthesis

  • Weaving Quotes into your Writing

  • Plagiarism vs. documentation

  • Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting

  • Red Wheelbarrow

  • X-Men

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Synthesis activities

  • Mixed Nuts

  • Revenge of the Sith

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New types of products focus on evaluation

Student-developed pathfinders

Reflection as part of the product

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Making over the landscape:21st Century Librarian’s Responsibilities

  • Pathfinders

  • Style sheets

  • Websites

  • Guides to research

  • Meeting students where they live!

    • Importance of our Websites // What the kids think

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Pathfinders as 21st Century learning landscapes

  • Around for since the 70s to help library users navigate resources

  • Establishes a plan of action--clears a path through the forest

  • Now Web-based and even more necessary!

  • Sharable 24/7 --for the good of all Web-users and information seekers!

  • Scalable—makes teachers’ and librarians’ advice vastly available

  • Models selection, evaluation, strategies, and balance!

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And that’s where they belong!

Pathfinders go online!

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Why should teacher-librariansand teachers create Pathfinders?

  • Model selection

  • Scaffold good research strategy

  • Customized for groups

  • Promote teacher-librarians as information professionals

  • Inspire new collaborations

  • Alleviate confusion for the end-user

  • Powerfully represent the school/ district

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Why? continued

They are a cheap and

immediate fix for several

research problems

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Why create them for students?

  • So they won’t miss the really good stuff! --Promote a wide and balanced range of relevant resources

  • Multiple formats / range of information choices

  • Self-efficacy may discourage exploration

  • Can students discern quality?

  • Move students from reliance on free Web or their favorite search engine

  • Implicitly metacognitive—

    • Reflect on the process

    • Reflect on searching strategies

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More on why .

  • Helps eliminate frustration

  • Ensures (encourages?) quality products

  • Can be incorporated into rubric

  • Focuses research and maximizes student use of time to higher-level tasks

  • Fits students’ need for independence

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Springfield’s Curricular Pathfinders

  • Pathfinder Menu

  • Social Issues Pathfinder

  • Pathfinder for Literary Research

  • Pathfinder for Physics Current Events

  • Primary Sources

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A question from Marjorie Pappas

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Teachers need pathfinders too!

Educational Research

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Best Practice!

Pathfinder Models and Examples

  • Multnomah Homework Center - Social Issues

  • Internet Public Library- Pathfinders

    • Author Pathfinder IPL

  • Camden County Library System

  • 50 States Pathfinder

  • Lewis and Clark Pathfinder

  • Black History

  • John Steinbeck

  • Indianapolis Marion County Public Library

  • Economics

  • Community High School, District 94

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Tips for pathmakers

  • Goals: Quick guides can be learning tools

  • Audience: Consider the audience and need: age, abilities, interest, assignment details, what they need most

  • Organization: What kind of categories? Media formats, small and broad

  • Voice / Design: What approach with engage and convince of value? Printer-friendly version?

  • Annotate: value beyond a list of bookmarks

  • Advice: search strategies, vocabulary issues

  • Types of resources: best of the best media for the tasks. Include the stuff your students wouldn’t consider. Videos, blogs, PowerPoints, pdf documents, databases, link to catalog, ebooks?

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On Designing Pathfinders

  • Designing Pathfinders for Children and Young Adults (Annette Lamb)

  • Wenatchee’s Pathfinder for Creating Pathfinders

  • Vandergrift’s Pathfinder

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How much help to present?

  • Lakewood Inventors / Ohio Inventors

  • Haworth Civil War / Emerson Junior High, An Agonizing Moment, Civil War Pathfinder

  • Decades Pathfinder, 20th Century History by the Decade, Doing the Decades

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Making over the Rubric

  • View Rubrics Reloaded (video)

  • Rubric Design Checklist

  • Rubric PowerPoint

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Tips For Effective Rubric Design

How to:

design a rubric that does its job

write precise criteria and descriptors

make your rubric student-friendly

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Expert Input

Experts agree:

  • Rubrics are hard to design.

  • Rubrics are time-consuming to design.

  • “A rubric is only as useful as it is good. Using a bad rubric is a waste of time…”

    --Michael Simkins in “Designing Great Rubrics”

    Experts disagree:

  • how to design a “good” rubric

    Bottom line: Is it working for you and for your students?

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The Cookie

Task: Make a chocolate chip cookie that I would want to eat.

Criteria: Texture, Taste, Number of Chocolate Chips, Richness

Range of performance:

  • Delicious(14-16 pts)

  • Tasty(11-13 pts)

  • Edible(8-10 pts)

  • Not yet edible(0-7 pts)

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Assess The Cookie

  • Overall score

    • Delicious

    • Tasty

    • Edible

    • Not yet edible

  • By criteria

    • Number of chips

    • Texture

    • Taste

    • Richness

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Oops, What Went Wrong?

  • Did the “product” match expectations?

  • Effective rubrics don’t exist in a vacuum.

  • The good news…

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Holistic Or Analytic—Which To Use?

HOLISTIC—views product or performance as a whole; describes characteristics of different levels of performance. Criteria are summarized for each score level.

(level=degree of success—e.g., 4,3,2,1 or “Tasty”)

(criteria= what counts, facets of performance—e.g., research or number of chips or presentation)

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Holistic Or Analytic?

HOLISTIC—pros and cons

  • Takes less time to create. Well…

  • Effectively determines a “not fully developed” performance as a whole

  • Efficient for large group scoring; less time to assess

  • Not diagnostic

  • Student may exhibit traits at two or more levels at the same time.

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Holistic Example


Delicious level (4)

  • Chips in every bite

  • Consistently chewy

  • Even golden brown

  • Buttery, high fat

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Holistic Or Analytic?

Analytic=Separate facets of performance are defined, independently valued, and scored.

  • Example: Music

    Skill = string improvisation development

  • Facets scored separately:

    • Melody

    • Harmonics

    • Rhythm

    • Bowing & backup

    • Confidence

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Holistic Or Analytic?

Analytic—pros and cons

  • Sharper focus on target

  • Specific feedback (matrix)

  • Instructional emphasis

  • Time consuming to articulate components and to find language clear enough to define performance levels effectively

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The Debate

  • Is the whole the sum of its parts?

  • Wiggle room or valid criterion—

    • Overall Development

    • Overall Impression

    • Overall impact (See “purpose”)

  • Thomas Newkirk

  • Weighting

  • Number range (70-74 or 70-79)

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Tip #1

Don’t make task-specific rubrics.

  • Efficiency issue

  • Two heads or three or four or five…

  • Make one, get two or three or four…

  • “Generalizable” or template rubric

  • Unless you need it for tomorrow…

    (See Tip #8)

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Tip #2

Don’t use generic or “canned” rubrics without careful consideration of their quality and appropriateness for your project.

  • These are your students, not someone else’s.

  • Your students have received your instruction.

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Tip #3

Avoid dysfunctional detail.

  • “…in most instances, lengthy rubrics probably can be reduced to succinct…more useful versions for classroom instruction. Such abbreviated rubrics can still capture the key evaluative criteria needed to judge students’ responses. Lengthy rubrics, in contrast, will gather dust” (Benjamin 23).

    --Includes wordiness, jargon, negativity

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Tip #4

Limit the number of criteria

  • Well…

  • Don’t combine independent criteria.

    • “very clear” and “very organized” (may be clear but not organized or vice versa).

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Tip #5

Use key, teachable “criteria” (What counts)

  • Don’t vaguely define levels of quality.

  • Concrete versus abstract

    • “poorly organized” (Organization: sharply focused thesis, topic sentences clearly connected to thesis, logical ordering of paragraphs, conclusion ends with clincher)

    • “inventive” “creative” “imaginative” UNLESS…

      Key Question to ask yourself:

      What does it look like?

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Tip #6

Use measurable criteria.

  • Specify what quality or absence looks like vs. comparatives (“not as thorough as”)or value language (“excellent content”)

  • Highlight the impact of the performance

    • Was the paper persuasive or problem solved? (Note importance of PURPOSE)

    • What are the traits of effective persuasion?

    • Be sure that the descriptor is not the criterion and vice versa

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Tip #7

Aim for an even number of levels

  • Create continuum between least and most

  • Define poles and work inward

  • List skills and traits consistently across levels

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Tip #8

  • Include students in creating or adapting rubrics

  • Consider using “I” in the descriptors

    • I followed precisely—consistently—inconsistently—MLA documentation format.

    • I did not follow MLA documentation format.

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Tip #9

  • Motivate students to use rubric.

    • Instructional rubric (“Buy one, get one…”)

      “At their very best, rubrics are also teaching tools that support student learning…” (Andrade 13).

  • Do they understand the criteria and descriptors? How do you know?

  • When do you give the rubric to your students?

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Tip #10

Provide models of the different performance levels.

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The Assignment Sheet

  • Don’t forget the importance of the assignment sheet

    • Connection to rubric (Use same language!)

  • The lawyers in your class

    “But the rubric doesn’t say that…”

  • Project / paper / presentation must meet all requirements of assignment

    • Due date and late penalty

    • Format requirements

    • Non-negotiables

      • Skills and reasonable expectations

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    Don’t Forget the Check-in Stage

    Use your rubric as a formative assessment to give students feedback about how they are doing.

    • Isolate a particularly challenging aspect

    • Have student isolate an area of difficulty

    • Center revision instruction around rubric

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    Steps in Developing a Rubric

    • Design backwards—rubric first; then product/performance.

    • Decide on the criteria for the product or performance to be assessed.

    • Write a definition or make a list of concrete descriptors—identifiable-- for each criterion.

    • Develop a continuum for describing the range of performance for each criterion.

    • Keep track of strengths and weaknesses of rubric as you use it to assess student work.

    • Revise accordingly.

    • Step back; ask yourself, “What didn’t I make clear instructionally?” The weakness may not be the rubric.

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    Steps in Modifying a “Canned” Rubric

    • Find a rubric that most closely matches your performance task.

      • Rubistar, for instance

    • Evaluate and adjust to reflect your instruction, language, expectations, content, students

      • Criteria

      • Descriptors

      • Performance levels

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    It’s hard work…

    • Expect to revise…and revise…

      • One problem is that the rubric must cover all potential performances; each should fit somewhere on the rubric.

    • “There are no final versions, only drafts and deadlines.”

    • When you’ve got a good one, SHARE IT!

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    When to use these rubrics

    Usually with a relatively complex assignment, such as a long-term project, and essay, or research-based product.

    • Informative feedback about work in progress

    • Detailed evaluations of final projects

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    The Mini-Rubric

    These are the quick ones.

    Fewer criteria and shorter descriptions of quality

    • Yes/no checklists

    • Research ChecBric

    • Describe proficient level of quality and leave other boxes for commentary during grading.

    • Use for small products or processes:

      • Poster

      • Outline

      • Journal entry

      • Class activity

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    Mini-rubric Example

    Vocabulary Poster Purpose: to inform

    Content criterion (50%) 4 3 2 1

    ____written explanation of denotation—accuracy/thoroughness

    ____examples in action—accuracy/variety

    ____visual symbol or cartoon conveys word meaning— accuracy/clarity

    ____wordplay---weighs synonyms for subtleties of meaning--accuracy/thoroughness

    Presentation criterion (50%)


    4,3,2,1--clear organizational pattern

    4,3,2,1--no error in Conventions

    4,3,2,1--uses visual space to catch and hold attention

    Score= Content__+Presentation___divided by 2=______GRADE


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    Miscellaneous Suggestions

    • Describe proficient level of quality and leave other boxes for commentary during grading.

    • “Box” the acceptable—proficient—level

    • Translate the rubric’s 4,3,2,1 into number that represents middle of grade range (e.g., B=84)

      OR, give a point range (e.g., A=90 (indicates just made category)

      BUT A=95 (indicates solid in category

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    Don’t let the rubric stand alone:

    ALWAYS, ALWAYS provide specific “Comments” on your rubric and/or on the student product itself.

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    Sentence Stems

    To establish 4 levels of performance, try sentence stems.


    • Yes, I used surface texture and deep carvings effectively to create individualizing detail.

    • Yes, I used surface texture and deep carvings, but I needed to include more for individualizing detail.

    • No, I did not use surface texture, but I did use deep carvings –or vice, versa—to create some individualizing detail.

    • No, I did not use surface texture or deep carvings.

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    Rubric Criterion Across The Curriculum

    Content (substance, support, proof, details)

    • Relevant

    • Specific

    • Thorough

    • Synthesized

    • Balanced

    • Convincing

    • Accurate

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    Rubric Criterion Across the Curriculum


    • Uses variety of sources (primary, secondary, electronic, traditional, human)

      • Note: Watch minimums—Is minimum “minimal” or is minimum “proficient”?

    • Uses appropriate sources (credible, timely, scholarly)

    • Documents sources accurately

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    The Best Rubrics

    • Analytic and holistic

    • Developmental

    • “Generalizable” and specific

    • Instructional

      The best rubrics WORK for students and teachers!

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    Works Cited/Consulted

    • Andrade, Heidi Goodrich. “Using Rubrics to Promote Thinking and Learning.” ASCD. Feb. 2000

    • Baggio, Christine. “Designing Rubrics: Revising Instruction and Improving Performance.” PowerPoint presentation.

    • Benjamin, Amy. An English Teacher’s Guide to Performance Tasks and Rubrics. Larchmont: Eye on Education, 2000.

    • Classroom. Assessment Framework, Grades 4-8. PDE, Fall 2002.

    • Leavell, Alexandra. “Authentic Assessment: Using Rubrics to Evaluate Project-Based Learning.” PowerPoint. WEBLIBRARY.

    • Matthews, Jay. “Writing by the Rules No Easy Task.” <>.

    • Simkins, Michael. “Designing Great Rubrics.” Technology and Learning. August 1999.

    • Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. “Tips for Developing Effective Rubrics.” Understanding by Design. ASCD,1998.

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    Making over:The way we look at our practice: The Tuning Protocol

    Looking at student work collegially

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    BackgroundAnnenberg video

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    The warts

    • “A couple of the group members appeared shy about participating.”

    • “The group seemed tentative at first…”

    • “…this activity puts us in a vulnerable role.”

    • “The protocol feels contrived.”

    • “The presenter got a lot of feedback about what was wrong but had hoped for more feedback about how to achieve the specific goals he expressed.”

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    The protocol

    • Who?

      Groups of 8-11

      • Facilitator

      • Presenter

      • Participants

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    The procedure

    • Presentation (15 min.)

    • Clarifying Questions (5 min.)

    • Individual Note-taking (5 min.)

    • Participant Discussion (15 min.)

      • Warm and Cool Feedback

    • Presenter Reflection (15 min.)

    • Debriefing (10 min.)

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    • Respect the presenter.

    • Watch time.

      • Don’t skip the debriefing segment.

    • Keep groups stable.

    • Contribute to substantive discourse

      • Give both warm and cool feedback.

      • More “cool,” please

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    Goals for Today

    • Understanding

      • What a tuning protocol is

      • How it is used

      • Benefits

      • Practice

      • Application

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    Ultimate Goals

    To provide a tool for teachers

    • To learn about their students and about their practice--in teams, across grade levels, by subject area

    • To encourage reflection

    • To encourage collegiality

    • To build shared expectations

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    What is a tuning protocol?

    • Facilitated, focused conversation

    • Formal structure of steps and guidelines

    • Case study

    • Collegial experience

    • A tool to help “tune”

      our practice

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    A Definition

    A tuning protocol is a “way a teacher presents actual work before a group of thoughtful ‘critical friends’ in a structured reflective discourse aimed at ‘tuning’ the work to higher standards.”

    • Joe McDonald in “Three Pictures of an Exhibition (1995)

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    When is a tuning protocol used?

    • Answer questions about student performance

    • Inform instruction and assessment

    • Explore efficacy of programs, initiatives

    • Helps identify effective teaching strategies

    • Promotes reflective practice

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    Why does it work?

    • Risk-free way to get at what makes a difference in learning

    • Problem-solving approach

    • Presenters feel good, learn

    • Work receives serious consideration

    • Participants learn

    • Process stimulates a learning community

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    What a tuning protocol is NOT!

    • Opportunity for “one-upmanship”

    • Showcase for validation

    • Haven for venting about students, parents, administrators, instruction in earlier grades

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    The Pedigree

    • Harvard Project Zero

    • Coalition of Essential Schools

      --Joe McDonald, Brown University, 1995

    • Academy for Educational Development

    • “There is emerging evidence that some versions of looking at student work yield benefits for teaching and learning.”

      --Little, Gearhart, Curry, and Kafka (2003)

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    One School’s Story

    • Research initiative at the high school

    • Use of the tuning protocol

    • Contributions of the tuning protocol

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    Feedback from Teachers

    • “To me, the value of this process is learning from other teachers their strategies for improving a lesson.” “…useful and helpful.”

    • “Most of our group participated enthusiastically in all steps of the protocol.”

    • “During the discussion, people brainstormed, productively building on their colleagues’ comments.”

    • “On the whole, this was a very positive experience.” “Well worth the time.”

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    Warm and Cool Feedback


    • We all want to get better in the work we do.

    • We all want to be courteous.

    • In order to accomplish #1, we need to be thoughtful, insightful, and provocative.

    • We are in this together

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    Warm Feedback

    • Statements that let the presenter know what is working.

      • Praise for what is effective

      • Specific

        • “That’s great!” =X

        • “Good job!” =X

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    Cool Feedback

    • Statements or questions that help the presenter move forward.

      • What if? I wonder what would happen if…

    • Not criticism---critique

      • Improve the work

      • Improve the context

      • Not about the presenter

      • No “should” or Why didn’t you?”

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    What can be tuned

    • Any written form

    • Performance or demonstration on audiotape or videotape

    • Artwork

    • Computer multi-media presentation

    • Display

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    Selection criteria

    • One piece for one student

    • One piece from several students

    • Multiple pieces from the same students

    • Drafts of a single piece from a single student

    • One that represents best or worst or middle

    • A randomly chosen piece

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    Focusing Questions

    • What does this work tell us about what students know and are able to do?

    • Is this piece good enough for students in 6th grade? How can we help this student (and all students) make it good enough?

    • How could the instruction that surrounds this work execute a better product?

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    Importance of Debriefing

    • GOAL—Are teachers learning about their students and their practice?

    • Presenter discusses how the protocol worked

    • Participants discuss how the protocol worked

    • Sample reflection questions:

      • What did we learn about student research?

      • What did we learn about the protocol and ourselves?

      • Did we actually focus on student work or on other issues?

      • How could our process be improved?

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    Works Cited

    Easton, Lois. Collaboratively Examining Student Work: Why and How. Oct.2, 2003.

    Little, Judith Warren,et al. “Looking at Student Work For Teacher Learning, Teacher Community, and School Reform. Phi Delta Kappan. November 2003.

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    Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.

    Margaret Mead

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    Contact information: citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.

    • Springfield Township HS Virtual Library

    • [email protected]

    • [email protected]

    • Many of the tools referred to in this presentation are located at:

      Presentation located at:

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    Some examples citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.

    • American Memory Lessons

    • NARA Digital Classroom

    • Read*Write*Think

    • Access Excellence Mysteries

    • Five Kinds of Slam Dunk Lessons (McKenzie)

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    More ideas! citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.

    • WebQuest Page, Matrix of top examples

    • Best

    • Lubbock ISD sample problems, sample scenarios

    • Missouri WebQuest examples

    • San Diego Schools

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    About Inquiry citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.

    • 13 Inquiry-Based Learning

    • Eduscapes: Project, Problem and Inquiry-Based Learning

    • Inquiry Page

    • Understanding by Design

    • From Now On (Jamie McKenzie)

      • The Essential Question, Making Good Lessons Quickly