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Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. presented by: Michael E. Smith 1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the . Tuesday, March 28, 2000. University of California. Understanding Europe’s “New” Common Foreign and Security Policy: A Primer for Outsiders

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Slide1 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Understanding Europe’s “New”

Common Foreign and Security Policy:

A Primer for Outsiders

Michael E. Smith

IGCC

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide2 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

History of the EU’s Security Cooperation:

1950s: European Defense Community

1960s: Fouchet Plans

1970s: European Political Cooperation (established 1971)

1990s: Common Foreign and Security Policy (established 1991 as Maastricht Treaty’s Second Pillar; refined by Amsterdam Treaty, 1997)

2 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide3 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Despite obstacles EU CFSP can develop

more effective cooperation based on:

  • Common Foreign/Security Interests

  • Recent Changes in Decision-Making Mechanisms

  • Common European Resources

  • Performance Record in Foreign/Security Policy Cooperation

3 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide4 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign/ Security Interests:

European Political Cooperation (EPC) 1971

  • Domaines Réservés: certain issues were off

  • limits to discussion (i.e. France/African colonies,

  • Greece/Turkey, and Britain/Ireland)

  • Civilian Norms: favoring diplomacy over coercion

  • and mediation over force

  • Emphasized free and open government, respect

  • for rule of law, protection of human rights, and economic

  • liberalism

4 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide5 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign/ Security Interests:

Maastricht Treaty 1991

  • Safeguarding common values, interests,

  • and independence of EU

  • Strengthening security of members in all ways

  • Preserving peace and strengthening international security

  • Promoting international cooperation

  • Developing and consolidating democracy, rule of law, and respect

  • for human rights and fundamental freedoms

5 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide6 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign/ Security Interests:

Lisbon European Council 1992

  • Interests based on:

  • Geographical proximity

  • EU interests in political/economic stability of a

  • region or country

  • Existence of threats to the security interests of the Union

6 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide7 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign/ Security Interests:

Lisbon European Council 1992

  • Areas for potential CFSP actions:

  • Strengthening democratic principles and

  • institutions and supporting good government

  • Promoting regional stability cooperation

  • Assisting international efforts to deal with emergencies

  • Strengthening existing cooperation against arms proliferation,

  • terrorism, and illicit drugs

7 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide8 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign/ Security Interests:

Lisbon European Council 1992

  • Security issues for potential CFSP action:

  • Disarmament and arms control in Europe

  • Nuclear non-proliferation

  • Economic aspects of security, especially technology transfer

8 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide9 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign/ Security Interests:

Amsterdam Treaty 1996-97

  • Reaffirmed commitment to TEU interests

  • Extended commitment to preserve peace and

  • strengthen international security by including

  • external borders

  • Included “Petersburg Tasks”: humanitarian and rescue

  • tasks, peacekeeping tasks, and tasks of combat force in

  • crisis management including peacemaking

9 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide10 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Decision-Making Principles:

European Political Cooperation (EPC) 1971

  • Decentralized network of informal discussion

  • Decisions based on consultation, confidentiality

  • and consensus

  • Domaines réservés

  • Each issue was considered separately in order to avoid trade-offs

10 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide11 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Decision-Making Principles:

Maastricht Treaty

  • Preserved the framework of EPC

  • Significantly scaled back the coverage of the

  • domaines réservés

  • Sequencing and complexity of decision-making

  • reflects the compromises made during Maastricht negotiations

11 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide12 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Decision-Making Principles:

Amsterdam Treaty

  • All members are entitled to full participation

  • regarding use of WEU in humanitarian missions

  • (“Petersburg tasks”)

  • Those states who do not participate may also be

  • involved in planning and decision-making

  • Still relies on unanimous decisions, but allows for states to abstain

  • (if over 1/3 of the states abstain the EU cannot act)

  • If a state decides to oppose a decision a vote shall not be taken

12 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide13 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Decision-Making Principles:

WEU

  • EU/WEU cooperation include:

  • Consultation/decision-making, particularly in

  • crisis situations

  • Joint meetings of EU/WEU organizations

  • Harmonization of presidencies, rules, and practices and coordination

  • of staff

  • Improved security arrangements with the EU

13 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide14 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Decision-Making Principles:

NATO

  • Cooperation with NATO includes:

  • WEU active involvement in the NATO defense

  • planning process

  • Operational links between the WEU and NATO

  • for the planning, preparation, and conduct of operations

  • using NATO assets and capabilities under the political

  • control and strategic direction of the WEU

14 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide15 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Resources: Civilian Resources

  • TEU: Budget was split into administrative

  • (paid with Community budget) and operational

  • (to be paid by Community or individual

  • states which led to a number of impediments to act

  • Amsterdam: Made clear EC budget is to be

  • primary source of CFSP funds and allowed abstaining

  • states to abstain from payment

15 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide16 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Resources: Civilian Resources

  • Amsterdam sets out specific funding of:

  • Elections and participation in democratic

  • transition process

  • EU envoys

  • Prevention of conflicts/ Peace and security processes

  • Financial assistance to disarmament processes

  • Urgent actions

16 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide17 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Resources: Military Resources

Maastricht: NATO is dominant European

security institution. Also allows EU to draw

upon WEU expertise and resources.

Amsterdam: EU member states will also support

armament cooperation in hopes of framing a common

defense policy.

St. Malo (1998): Kosovo demonstrated a number of shortcomings in

EU’s defense policy which reinvigorated interest in a common

defense policy.

17 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide18 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Resources: Military Resources

  • EU has been given the capacity to act alone

  • using NATO assets

  • WEU

  • Eurocorps: President, Romano Prodi,

  • stated that a common EU army was the “logical next step”

  • Defense Industry: Commission endorsed idea of cooperation

  • in arms planning and procurement

18 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide19 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign and Security Policy Actions:

  • Damage Limitation The EU has not been

  • torn apart or derailed in confronting a

  • number of problems including:

  • enlargement

  • monetary union

  • GATT and WTO negotiations

  • future of NATO

  • the Balkans

19 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide20 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign and Security Policy Actions:

Subjects of CFSP common positions:

Afghanistan

Albania

Angola (2 )

Burundi (2)

Burma/Mayanmar

Cuba

Haiti (2)

Indonesia/East Timor

Iraq

KEDO

Libya

Nigeria (3)

Rwanda

Sierra Leone

Sudan

Ukraine

Ex-Yugoslavia (14)

Biological and toxic weapons

Blinding laser weapons

Conflict prevention and resolution in Africa

20 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide21 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

Common Foreign and Security Policy Actions:

Subjects of CFSP common actions:

Albania

Anti-personnel mines (4)

Democracy Support: Congo

Democracy Support: Zaire

Dual-use technology

KEDO

Middle East Peace Process (2)

South Africa

Special EU envoy/ aid for crisis management in Africa (3)

Stability Pact Central/ Eastern Europe (2)

Renewal of Non-Proliferation Treaty

Russian elections observation

Ex-Yugoslavia (15)

21 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide22 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

The Future of the CFSP: Obstacles

  • Lack of common political will

  • Domestic politics

  • Resources

  • Going it alone: States acting independently of the EU

  • Enlargement & EMU

  • Lack of cooperation in European defense industry

22 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected]

For full text see igcc online

http://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/slides/


Slide23 l.jpg

Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

presented by: Michael E. Smith

1998-99 Dissertation Fellow of the

Tuesday, March 28, 2000

University of California

The Future of the CFSP: Opportunities

  • Humanitarian aid and assistance

  • Non-combat related support tasks

  • The carrot of enlargement

23 of 23

author:

Michael E. Smith

Georgia State University

Department of Political Science

University Plaza

Atlanta, GA 30303

[email protected]

Robinson Building Complex

9500 Gilman Drive

La Jolla, CA 92093-0518

phone 858.534.3352 fax 858.534.7655

email [email protected] f

for full text see igcc onlinehttp://www-igcc.ucsd.edu/publications/policy_papers/pp52.html


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