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PRC State Ideologies. from Marxism to “3 Represents”. Political Ideology. A systematic set of ideas explanation of political phenomena criteria and standards of evaluation social and cultural orientation to define and affirm individual and collective identity program of political action

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PRC State Ideologies

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PRC State Ideologies

from Marxism to “3 Represents”


Political Ideology

  • A systematic set of ideas

  • explanation of political phenomena

  • criteria and standards of evaluation

  • social and cultural orientation to define and affirm individual and collective identity

  • program of political action

    • Lenin: “What is to be done?”


Pillars of Communist Regimes

  • Marxist ideology

    • Karl Marx (1818 - 1883)

  • Communist Party

    • Lenin (1870 - 1924)

  • command economy

    • Stalin (1879 - 1953)


Marxism

  • Dialectics

    • contradictions and class struggle

  • Materialism

    • productive forces, economic structure, and superstructure

  • in time proletariat will be emancipated from capitalist exploitation through an international revolution


Leninism

  • Marxist revolution can happen

    • in one country

    • before industrialization

    • before capitalist democracy

  • Bolshevik party

    • highly disciplined

    • hierarchical organization

    • of professional revolutionaries


Mao Zedong Thought

  • practical politics and inconsistency

  • continuous revolution in a backward agrarian society of half a billion peasants

  • the “red” versus “expertise” debate

    • revolutionary change

    • smooth administration

      • technical expertise

  • ultimate goal of making China strong


Mao Zedong Thought

  • attacked traditional Chinese culture

    • especially the network of relationships

    • replaced with class identity, nationalism, and new loyalty

  • incorporated traditional elements

    • ideological indoctrination

    • Mao’s monopoly on determining what would constitute correct ideology for China


Voluntarism

  • properly motivated people could overcome virtually any material odds to accomplish their goals

  • contradicts Marxist materialism

  • e.g. the “Great Leap Forward”

    • 1958 - 1960


Mass Line

  • A leadership doctrine developed in 1940s

  • vanguard role of the party

    • dictatorial leadership

  • strong participatory role for the populace

    • before decision making

    • during implementation of policy initiatives

  • “from the masses to the masses”

  • intended to avoid losing touch with masses


Mass Campaigns

  • concentrated attacks on specific issues

    • through mass mobilization of the populace

  • social or political transformation

  • economic development

  • e.g. Suppression of Counterrevolutionaries (1951)

  • e.g. Great Leap Forward (1958 – 1960)

  • e.g. Cultural Revolution (1966 – 1976)


Struggle

  • directly contradict Confucian ideal of “harmony”

  • bad class labels:

    • landlords

    • capitalists

    • rich farmers

  • violence


Egalitarianism

  • frugal living

  • Confucius: “those who head a state do not worry about scarcity but about inequality”


Anti-Intellectualism

  • In Mao’s view, intellectuals

    • embodied the traditional culture

    • lost touch with the masses

    • used technical expertise to counter revolutionary enthusiasm

    • reinforced social inequality

  • repression of intellectuals cost China a generation of highly trained specialists


United Front

  • “unite with all who can be united”

    • united with Chiang Kai-shek to fight Japanese in 1930s

    • united with “democratic parties” to fight Chiang Kai-shek in late 1940s


Class Struggle

  • Mao’s unorthodox interpretations of Marxist class concepts

  • class labels were assigned in 1950s

    • carried by every resident until after Mao died

  • class status could be determined by political attitude

    • e.g. “capitalist-roaders” during the C.R.

  • class status could be hereditary


Self-Reliance

  • Mao: “keep the initiative in one’s own hand”

    • whether a community could sustain itself even in adverse circumstances

  • the sudden withdrawal of Soviet aid in 1958

  • Maoist China strived to minimize its dependence on any single foreign country


Political Hierarchy


Current PRC Constitution

  • “Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China

  • “and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of ‘Three Represents’

  • “the Chinese people …”


“Deng Xiaoping Theory”

  • “emancipate minds

  • “and seek truth from facts”

  • “It doesn’t matter whether the cat is black or white as long as it catches mice”

  • “cross the river by groping for stones”


Jiang Zemin’s “3 Represents”

  • “the Communist Party represents

  • “the development requirements of China's advanced social productive forces


“3 Represents”: II

  • “the progressive course of China's advanced culture


“3 Represents”: III

  • “and the fundamental interests of the majority of the Chinese people”


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