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Cynthia Tait Aquatic Ecologist USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region Four Threats to the Health of the Nation’s Forests and Grasslands 2003 2004 E l e m e n t 1 : P r e v e n t i o n

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Cynthia Tait

Aquatic Ecologist

USDA Forest Service

Intermountain Region

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Four Threats to the Healthof the Nation’s Forestsand Grasslands


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E l e m e n t 1 : P r e v e n t i o n

The Forest Service will actively seek to prevent the introduction and spread of invasive species into U.S. forest and rangeland ecosystems.



■ Expand use of preventive measures, including sanitizing equipment after work in infested areas, requiring certified weed-free seed and other materials for restoration, and requiring the use of certified weed-free hay.

Information and Technology Development

■Through research and other means, refine existing and develop new preventive treatment methods, including chemical, biological, cultural, and genetic.

Technology Transfer

■ Develop and transfer technology for resource specialists and managers.

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Forest Service Manual (FSM)

All Issuances (Service-wide and Field):

Forest Service Handbooks (FSH)

Service-wide and Field Issuances

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What is the need for this workshop?

  • Land management agencies entrusted with health of land don’t want to be agents of spread.

  • Many invasive species, many ideas for control, situation in constant flux

  • So far, no agency (FS) standards, directives, or adequate guidance

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What is the need for this workshop?

Find the BEST way to prevent spread of aquatic invasives

Effective kill of organism

or significant reduction

of risk


uses sound science

Cost effective


do-able in the field

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Whirling Disease

Aquatic Invasive Species


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Whirling Disease

NZ Mudsnails

Aquatic Invasive Species


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Whirling Disease

NZ Mudsnails


Aquatic Invasive Species


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Whirling Disease

NZ Mudsnails


Chytrid Fungus


Aquatic Invasive Species


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Aquatic Invasive Species


Eurasian Watermilfoil

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Propagation by seeds insignificant

Spread by stem fragments

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Websites with species site localities




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New Zealand Mudsnail

Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray)

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For more information on New Zealand mudsnail:

Montana State University, Bozeman

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Whirling Disease

NZ Mudsnails

Aquatic Invasive Species


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  • In spring, can bear young any time of year; otherwise, mostly summer and autumn

  • Cruising speed 1 m/hr

  • As many as 14 trematode parasites found in NZM

  • Found to be ingested by fish, nutritional value unknown

  • Most likely transported to new systems in western USA by passive dispersal via recreationists and contaminated equipment.