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The Nature of Matter Chapter 2 Section 1 Atoms All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are the smallest units of matter. Atoms consist of two regions: Nucleus Electron Cloud Subatomic Particles There are 3 subatomic particles: Protons ( positive charge) Neutrons ( neutral charge)

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The Nature of Matter

Chapter 2

Section 1


Atoms l.jpg
Atoms

  • All matter is made up of atoms.

  • Atoms are the smallest units of matter.

  • Atoms consist of two regions:

    • Nucleus

    • Electron Cloud


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Subatomic Particles

  • There are 3 subatomic particles:

    • Protons (positive charge)

    • Neutrons (neutral charge)

    • Electrons (negative charge)

  • Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus.

  • Electrons are in the electron cloud.


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More Chemistry Terms

  • Element—pure substance made up of only one type of atom

    • Examples: gold, oxygen, iodine

  • Compound—pure substance made up of two or more types of atoms in definite proportions

    • Examples: H2O, CO2, NH3

  • Molecule—smallest unit of a compound


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Chemical Bonds

  • Compounds are held together by chemical bonds.

  • There are two main types of chemical bonds:

    • Ionic Bonds

    • Covalent Bonds


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Types of Bonds

  • Ionic Bonds

    • Formed between metals and nonmetals

    • Forms positive and negative ions

    • Electrons are exchanged

  • Covalent Bonds

    • Formed between nonmetals and other nonmetals

    • Electrons are shared


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Solutions and Suspensions

  • Mixture—a material composed of 2 or more substances that are physically mixed (but NOT chemically combined)

  • Solution—a type of mixture where the molecules are evenly distributed

  • Suspension—a mixture where the particles are NOT completely dissolved


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Solutions

  • Solutions have two parts:

    • Solute—substance that is dissolved

    • Solvent—the liquid in which the solute dissolves


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pH Scale

  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 and shows the concentration of H+ ions.

  • The lower the pH, the more acidic the solution. (Acid = below 7)

  • The higher the pH, the more basic (alkaline) the solution. (Base = above 7)


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Acids and Bases

  • Pure water has a pH of 7, which is neutral.

  • Acids are compounds with more H+ ions than pure water.

    • pH of Strong Acid = 1 - 3

    • pH of Weak Acid = 4 – 6.9

  • Bases are compounds with more OH- ions than pure water.

    • pH of Strong Base = 11 - 14

    • pH of Weak Base = 7.1 - 10


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