1 / 13

Summary - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Summary. Main inquiries : Explaining Lack of sustained socio-economic development Explaining Lack of political stability Different theoretical approaches Case Studies The paradox of Argentina and Brazil : rich in natural resources but economically and politically unstable, why?

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Summary' - HarrisCezar

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Summary l.jpg

  • Main inquiries:

    • Explaining Lack of sustained socio-economic development

    • Explaining Lack of political stability

  • Different theoretical approaches

  • Case Studies

  • The paradox of Argentina and Brazil: rich in natural resources but economically and politically unstable, why?

  • The paradox of Chile. Almost two centuries of political stability but it faced a backlash during the 1970s, why?

  • Today, the paradox of Colombia

Colombia s paradox l.jpg
Colombia’s Paradox

  • Two Paradox (Contradictions)

  • (a) The most violent country in Latin America but it has had a continuous democratic rule since 1958.

  • (b) The more money has been invested to eliminate drug-traffic, the more production of drugs we observe.

Overview colombia the usual path l.jpg
OverviewColombia, the usual path

  • (a) Concentration of land in few hands

  • (b) Economically depend on exporting raw material (Coffee, crude-oil, coal)

  • ( c) Racially divided: white (European descendent, less than 10%), mestizo (85%), indigenous (5%)

  • 1948/58 --> Civil war after attempt to introduce land reform. La violencia period, 200,000 deaths

  • 1958-2001 --> Government controlled by two parties (Conservative and Liberal). Both pro-status quo; alternation in power.

  • 1960s --> Emergence of Guerrilla movement, FARC and ENL (Marxist orientation. Social transformation agenda.

  • Based on rural areas. ENL (North), FARC (South)

  • 1960s --> Landowner responded organizing paramilitary groups.

  • 1980s --> Emergence of Narco-dealers

Overview colombia armed actors l.jpg
OverviewColombia: Armed Actors

  • The Government: low control over the military

  • The Armed Forces and Security Forces: 50,000-60,000

  • The Paramilitary: 7,000-10,000 (linked to the Armed Forces, landowners, narco-dealers). Responsible of 80% of the deaths in Colombia

    • Since 1996, they act as a United Self-defense forces of Colombia

    • They tax illegal drug industry to obtain resources

    • They are involved in drug trafficking

    • Strategy: Massacre of small villages to attack suspects

  • The Guerrilla: 15,000-20,000 (Today, linked to narco-dealers). Responsible of 15% of politically-motivated deaths.

    • Control of 42,000 km2,

    • kidnapping for profit

    • tax coca cultivation and production for profit

Overview the results l.jpg
OverviewThe results

  • Guerrilla war since 1960s and Narco-traffic war since 1980s.

  • Some Results 1960s-2001

  • 1.8 million forcibly displaced

  • More than 120,000 deaths as a direct result of these conflicts

  • Average of 3,000 kidnapping a year. (1/2 guerrilla, 1/2 criminals)

  • Recent Statistics.

  • 1960s-1990s 3,000 deaths average per year

  • 1999--22,957 deaths

  • 2000

  • 134,000 people displaced

  • Press estimate: 68 murders per day (7,000 deaths)

First paradox violence and democratic rule l.jpg
First Paradox:Violence and democratic rule

  • High level of conflicts -- but elected governments since 1948. Why?

  • Structure of the economy

  • Political factors:

  • Coalition politics

  • Exclusion of certain actors

  • Key: the military

Second paradox the more you invest in counter narcotics aid the more traffic you observe l.jpg
Second Paradox:The more you invest in counter-narcotics aidThe more traffic you observe

  • Higher investment:

  • Since 1980 the U.S. Has spent over $ 25 billion on international anti-drug programs

  • Between 1996-2000 the U.S. invested $ 1 billion in counter-narcotics aid, increasing 68% in relation to the 1990-1996 period.

  • But bad results,

  • Coca cultivation double in Colombia between 1996-2000

  • More illicit drugs are available in the US and at cheaper prices

Coca cultivation thousand of hectares l.jpg
Coca CultivationThousand of Hectares

The paradox more investment in anti narcotics war but no results l.jpg
The paradox:More investment in anti-narcotics warbut no results

  • Why do you think this has been the case?

The coca problem l.jpg
The Coca problem

  • High incentives to grow coca and not alternative products

    • Weather

    • Characteristics of the plant

  • Peasants do not profit from coca cultivation.

    • Intermediary receive main profit (drug-dealers)

  • Geographical conditions make hard to detect laboratories

  • Profits from drug-traffic are incredible, given the demand!

    • Estimate 5 billion a year

    • Drugs dealers still profit paying guerrilla, paramilitary, politicians

    • Dealers could lose 90% of the profit and still be profitable

  • Another incentive: International arm traffic

The u s and the drug problem l.jpg
The U.S. And the Drug Problem

  • Why does the US care about drug-traffic?

  • Total local cost is estimate in $110 billion a year (military aid, accidents, health care, lost productivity) 1 million hard-core drug users; 52,000 annual deaths for drug-abuse.

  • Thus, drug-traffic is a national security problem for the US

  • Colombia, the second most important recipient of US aid.

  • 90% of cocaine consumed in the US came from Colombia

  • How the U.S. Is dealing with this problem?

  • (a) Controlling Demand. Law enforcement and drug treatment programs. Only 57% of hard-core users have access to programs.

  • (b) Controlling traffic. Law enforcement, border control.

  • ( c) Controlling supply. Cutting coca production.

Plan colombia a new attempt to reduce supply l.jpg
Plan Colombia: A new attempt to reduce supply

  • Colombia’s government plan. September 1999

  • Objectives:

    • Peace negotiation with armed groups

    • Alternative economic development for affected regions

    • Promoting institutional reform to guarantee rule of law

    • Training Colombian military forces

    • Eliminating drug supply (Spraying coca cultivation, confronting groups)

  • Amount required: 7 billion dollars

  • Amount received: 3 billion dollars (US - 1.3 billion; Europe-300 million)

  • U.S. Aid: 1.3 billion (plus new $400 million this year)

    • 80% military aid. From this 80%, 70% will remain in the US

    • 20% economic development

Discussion question l.jpg
Discussion question

  • What are the consequences of the Plan Colombia? (see readings--Vargas, Human Rights Watch)

  • Think critically: do you agree with the following statement:

  • “Assisting the Colombian government with training and equipment will enable to reduce illegal drug production”