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Academic Partnerships with Native American Communities. Presented by Sara L. Young, Montana State University. American Indian Tribes in the U.S. 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes

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Academic Partnerships with Native American Communities

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Academic Partnerships with Native American Communities

Presented by

Sara L. Young, Montana State University


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American Indian Tribes in the U.S.

  • 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes

  • Sovereign nation status: conduct government to government relations with other levels of government (federal, state and local)

  • Each tribe has its own unique culture, language, practices and economic situations

  • Many similarities between some tribes and many differences

Crow Fair

Photo source: http://www.drumhop.com/CrowFair.html


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Crow Tribe of Indians of Montana – the Apsaalooke Nation

  • 2 million acres now – the original treaty boundaries included 32 million square acres. Today the reservation is about 60 miles by 40 miles.

  • Current tribal enrollment is at 11,500

  • The majority of tribal members residing on the reservation receive their medical care at the Indian Health Service facilities on the reservation

    • clinics at three sites and one hospital

  • Tribal colleges play a significant role in the education of many Native Americans including on the Crow reservation

  • Little Big Horn College chartered in 1980 >enrollment of approximately 250 tribal students

    >offers associate arts degrees in several areas,

    >many of students interested in biomedical and

    environmental health fields

http://montanafilm.com/crowres_03.htm


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Montana has 7 reservations

http://lewisandclark.state.mt.us/visitres.htm


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U.S. Federal and State Indian Reservations

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0778676.html


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Apache96,833

Blackfeet85,750

Cherokee729,533

Cheyenne18,204

Chickasaw38,351

Choctaw158,774Colville9,393

Comanche19,376

Chippewa149,669

Cree7,734

Creek71,310

Crow13,394

Delaware16,341

Houma8,713

Iroquois80,822

Kiowa12,242

Latin American Indian180,940

Lumbee57,868

Menominee9,840

Navajo298,197

Osage15,897

Ottawa10,677

Paiute13,532

Pima11,493

Potawatomi25,595

Pueblo74,085

Puget Sound

Salish14,631

Seminole27,431

Shoshone12,026

Sioux153,360

TohonoO'odham20,087

Ute10,385

Yakama10,851

Yaqui22,412

Yuman8,976

Other specified American Indian tribes357,658

American Indian tribe, not specified195,902

AlaskaAthabascan18,838

Aleut16,978

Eskimo54,761

Tlingit-Haida22,365

Other specified Alaska Native tribes3,973

Alaska Native tribe, not specified8,702

American Indian or Alaska Native  tribe, not specified1,056,457

Tribal Population – 2000 US Census

1. The numbers by American Indian and Alaska Native tribes do not add up to the total population figure because respondents may have put down more than one tribe. Respondents reporting several tribes are counted several times.

2. Total includes American Indian and Alaska Natives alone or in combination with other tribal groups or races. Indian and Alaskan Native population alone in 2000 was 2,475,956.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000.


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Institution State Highest Degree Offered

BAY MILLS COMMUNITY COLLEGE MI Associate's

BLACKFEET COMMUNITY COLLEGE MT Associate's

CANKDESKA CIKANA COMMUNITY COLLEGE ND Associate's

CHIEF DULL KNIFE COLLEGE MT Associate's

*COLLEGE OF MENOMINEE NATION WI Associate's

COMANCHE NATION COLLEGE OK Associate's

CROWNPOINT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NM Associate's

DINÉ COLLEGE AZ Associate's

FOND DU LAC TRIBAL AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE MN Bachelor's

FORT BELKNAP COLLEGE MT Associate's

FORT BERTHOLD COMMUNITY COLLEGE ND Associate's

FORT PECK COMMUNITY COLLEGE MT Associate's

HASKELL INDIAN NATIONS UNIVERSITY KS Bachelor's

INSTITUTE OF AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE

CULTURE NM Bachelor's

*KEWEENAW BAY OJIBWA COMMUNITY COLLEGE MI Associate's

LAC COURTE OREILLES OJIBWA COMMUNITY COLLEGE WI Associate's

LEECH LAKE TRIBAL COLLEGE MN Associate's

Institution State Highest Degree Offered

LITTLE BIG HORN COLLEGE MT Associate's

LITTLE PRIEST TRIBAL COLLEGE NE Associate's

NEBRASKA INDIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE NE Associate's

NORTHWEST INDIAN COLLEGE WA Associate's

OGLALA LAKOTA COLLEGE SD Master's

SAGINAW CHIPPEWA TRIBAL COLLEGE MI Associate's

SALISH KOOTENAI COLLEGE MT Bachelor's

SINTE GLESKA UNIVERSITY SD Master's

SISSETON WAHPETON COLLEGE SD Associate's

SITTING BULL COLLEGE ND Bachelor's

SOUTHWESTERN INDIAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE NM Associate's

STONE CHILD COLLEGE MT Associate's

TOHONO O'ODHAM COMMUNITY COLLEGE AZ Associate's

TURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE ND Bachelor's

UNITED TRIBES TECHNICAL COLLEGE ND Associate's

WHITE EARTH TRIBAL AND COMMUNITY COLLEGE MN Associate's

*WIND RIVER TRIBAL COLLEGE WY Associate's

*Indicates a tribal college is seeking formal accreditation candidacy status

Potential Partners – Tribal Colleges and Universities

Source: http://www.aihec.org


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Tribal College and University (TCU) Demographic Information:

  • 34 tribal colleges in 13 states

  • 8 TCUs offer baccalaureate programs; 2 offer

    master’s degree programs and all offer

    associate degree programs.

  • 27,000+ academic students annually; tens of

    thousands more through community outreach

  • 80% of the students are enrolled in federally

    recognized tribes

  • 67% Female

  • 59% Full-time

Tribal College and University

Student Demographics:

Source: http://www.aihec.org


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Many tribal nations are facing serious health disparities

  • Life expectancy that is 2.4 years less than the U.S, all races population (74.5 vs 76.9 years)

  • Higher infant mortality (8.5 per 1,000 live births compared to 6.8 per 1,000 for the U.S. all races population)

  • Higher death rates from tuberculosis (600% higher) alcoholism (510% higher) motor vehicle crashes (229% higher) diabetes (189% higher) unintentional injuries (152% higher) homicide (61% higher) and suicide (62% higher).

Source: “Facts on Indian Health Disparities” Indian Health Service, January 2006


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Aberdeen Area

Alaska Area

Albuquerque Area

Billings Area

California Area

Nashville Area

Navajo Area

Oklahoma Area

Phoenix Area

Portland Area

According to the Indian Health Service, 55% of American Indians and Alaska Natives living in the U.S. rely on the I.H.S. to provide access to health care services in 49 hospitals and nearly 600 other facilities operated by the I.H.S., tribes, and Alaska Native corporations or purchased from private providers.

(According

Source: http://www.nihb.org/index.php


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Cowlitz Indian Tribe [Northwest]John Barnett (Chairman)Tel: (360) 577-8140Fax: (360) 577-7432P.O. Box 2547Longview, WA 98632-8594Website: www.cowlitz.orgCoyote

Valley Band of Pomo Indians [Pacific]John Feliz, Jr. (Chairman)Tel: (707) 485-8723Fax: (707) 485-1247P.O. Box 39Redwood Valley, CA 95470Website: www.coyotevalleycasino.com

Craig Community Association (IRA) [Alaska]A. Millie Stevens (President)Tel: (907) 826-3996Fax: (907) 826-3997P.O. Box 828Craig, AK 99921

Crooked Creek Traditional Council [Alaska]Johnny John (President)Tel: (907) 432-2201Fax: (907) 432-2200P.O. Box 69Crooked Creek, AK 99575

Crow Creek Sioux Tribe [Great Plains]Lester Thompson, Jr. (Chairman)Tel: (605) 245-2221Fax: (605) 245-2470P.O. Box 50Fort Thompson, SD 57339

Crow Nation [Rocky Mountain]Carl E. Venne (Chairman)Tel: (406) 638-3715Fax: (406) 638-3773P.O. Box 159Crow Agency, MT 59022

NCAI’s webpage gives a list of the contact information for over 250 member tribes – this is just a sample of some of the tribes listed.

In many cases, a tribal resolution approving the research project will be required prior to gaining approval from an IRB of a regional I.H.S. office.

NCAI – National Congress of American Indians

Tribal Governments

Source: http://www.ncai.org/Tribal_Governments.119.0.html?&no_cache=1&print=1


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Urban Indians

  • Clusters of Native Americans living in urban areas that have their own inter-tribal communities with

  • 31 urban Indian clinics or other healthcare facilities are funded through the I.H.S. with minimal funding

  • Usually have Native American boards that are another source of potential partnerships

  • More Native Americans actually reside “off the reservation”

  • Urban Indians are harder to find and generally include groups of many different tribes.

  • Their community population may or may not maintain close ties to their extended families, tribes and cultural ways.


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IRB’s

  • Many tribes and/or tribal colleges have developed or are in the process of developing their own IRBs which researchers need to work with for projects involving tribal members or tribal data

  • When a tribe or tribal college does not have an IRB in place researchers generally are required to go through the IRB process with the area office of the Indian Health Service

  • If the research will involve working with any data, patients, staff or facilities of the I.H.S., researchers need to seek approval from both the tribal IRB and the I.H.S. IRB


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So how do we develop partnerships?

  • Respect, collegiality, trust, equality, communication, commitment, sincere interest in working with the tribe, development of a minimal level of understanding about the tribe’s history prior to making contact if possible

  • “The rule is to talk to tribes before the pencil hits the paper, not when the document is ready to be signed in ink.” Reno Charette, Coord. of Indian Affairs for the State of Montana


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Is CBPR the only way, the best way?

  • Community based participatory research approaches are not the only way to establish academic partnerships with Native American communities but CBPR does provide a good approach to building a trust relationship with individual community groups or tribes.


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Messengers for Health

A community-based participatory research project between Dr. Suzanne Christopher, a faculty member at Montana State University, and the Crow Nation that began 5 years ago to increase the participation of Crow women in cervical cancer screening and has now expanded to cover a broader area of addressing health disparities. The project is funded by the American Cancer Society.


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Montana Consortium for Community- Based Research in Native American Health

  • Established as a result of many requests from community groups within the Crow Nation, community groups in other Montana reservations and faculty from both the Montana State University and University of Montana campuses for more partnerships to conduct collaborative research between the universities and Native communities.


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Center for Native Health PartnershipsMontana State University-Bozeman

  • Linking Native American community partners, university partners and other research partners to develop CBPR projects to address health disparities affecting Native American communities

  • 25 planning grants and pilot projects throughout Montana’s seven reservations and urban Indian centers over a 5 year period

  • Have developed MOA’s with 3 of tribes to collaborate on Community Organizers funded through the center to assist the tribal health dept’s in developing the tribe’s own health research agendas; others are in progress


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How do academic partnerships develop when the reservations are so far from the university and urban Native communities are not always easy to locate ?

  • Working with universities that have Native American Studies departments and can provide information on Native communities in the region

  • Identifying I.H.S. regions with health disparities that fall into research areas of interest to you and making contacts through either the I.H.S. Area Office, the Area Tribal Health Board or the tribal health board

  • Establishing a collaboration with an investigator who has already developed a positive working relationship with Native communities and/or TCUs.


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Native American Health Disparities

  • Need for research to address the broad range of health disparities impacting Native American people.

  • Tribes are requiring a more significant role in research on or about their tribal members.

  • Tribes recognize the need to partner with academic researchers to overcome the health disparities.


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Thank you for your interest in fostering collaborations with a diverse population impacted by health disparities.


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