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THE NATION AT WAR. America: Past and Present Chapter 24. A New World Power. American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century Colonialism draws U.S. into international affairs. "I Took the Canal Zone".

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THE NATION AT WAR

America: Past and Present

Chapter 24


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A New World Power

  • American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century

  • Colonialism draws U.S. into international affairs


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"I Took the Canal Zone"

  • 1903--Colombian senate refuses to allow U.S. to build Panama Canal

  • Roosevelt abetted revolution to separate Panama from Colombia

  • Independent Panama permits construction

  • 1914--Panama Canal opened



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The Roosevelt Corollary

  • U.S. treats Latin America as a protectorate

  • “Roosevelt Corollary”--U.S. will ensure stability of Latin American finance

  • Roosevelt Corollary spurs intervention in

    • Dominican Republic

    • Panama

    • Cuba


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Ventures in the Far East

  • 1905--TR mediates the Ruso-Japanese War

  • Diplomatic agreements with Japan

    • Korea under Japanese influence

    • Japan to respect U.S. control of Philippines

  • Japanese resentment builds over Open Door policy in China


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Taft and Dollar Diplomacy

  • Taft substitutes economic force for military

  • American bankers replaced Europeans in Caribbean

  • Taft's support for U.S. economic influence in Manchuria alienates China, Japan, Russia


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Foreign Policy Under Wilson

  • Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy

  • Tries to base foreign policy on moral force


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Conducting Moral Diplomacy

  • Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try and settle disputes without war

  • Resorts to military force in Latin America

    • intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft


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Troubles Across the Border

  • 1913--Huerta leads coup in Mexico

  • Wilson denies Huerta recognition

    • Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just government based upon law”

  • Wilson blocks arms shipments to Mexico

  • 1914--U.S. seizes Vera Cruz

  • 1916--U.S. Army pursues “Pancho” Villa across U.S., Mexican border



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Toward War

  • 1914--War in Europe

    • Central Powers headed by Germany

    • Allied Powers headed by England, France

  • Wilson sympathizes with England, seeks U.S. neutrality


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The Neutrality Policy

  • Progressives see war as wasteful, irrational

  • Suspicion that business seeks war for profit

  • Immigrants prefer U.S. neutrality

  • A long tradition of U.S. neutrality

  • Americans see little national stake in war


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Freedom of the Seas

  • England blockades Germany

  • U.S. ships to Germany seized

  • Wilson accepts English promise of reimbursement at war’s end


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The U-Boat Threat

  • German submarines violate international law by shooting without warning

  • August, 1915-- Lusitania sunk by U-Boat

  • April, 1916--Wilson issues ultimatum: call off attacks on cargo and passenger ships or U.S.-German relations will be severed

  • Germany pledges to honor U.S. neutrality


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"He Kept Us Out of War"

  • 1916--Wilson campaigns on record of neutrality

  • Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigns on tougher line against Germany

  • Wilson wins close election

    • wins large labor, progressive vote

    • wins majority of women’s vote


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The Final Months of Peace

  • 1917--Germany lifts restrictions on U-Boats

  • Wilson’s response

    • orders U.S. merchant vessels armed

    • orders U.S. Navy to fire on German U-Boats

  • April 2, 1917--War declared on Germany


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Over There

  • U.S. allies in danger of losing war

    • Germans sink 881,000 tons of Allied shipping during April, 1917

    • mutinies in French army

    • British drive in Flanders Stalled

    • Bolsheviks sign separate peace with Germany; German troops to West

    • Italian army routed

  • Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive



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Mobilization

  • No U.S. contingency plans for war

  • 200,000 troops at war’s beginning

  • Draft conscripts 2.8 million by war’s end



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War in the Trenches

  • Teaming of U.S., English navies halves Allied losses to submarines

  • June 1917--U.S. troops arrive in France

  • Spring, 1918--U.S. forces help halt final German offensive

    • battle of Chateau Thierry

    • battle of Belleau Wood

  • September--Germans out of St. Mihiel



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Over Here

  • Victory on front depends on mobilization at home

  • Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production and distribution

  • Wilson begins campaign for American emotions


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The Conquest of Convictions

  • 1918--Wilson uses popular anti-German rage to pass the Sedition Act

    • criticism of the war was penalized

    • dissenters imprisoned

  • Summer, 1918--anticommunism prompts deployment of U.S. troops to Russia

  • 1918-1919--“Red Scare” results in domestic suppression of “radicals”


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A Bureaucratic War

  • Wartime agencies supervise production, distribution to maximize war effort

  • Government seizes some businesses to keep them running

  • Cooperation between government and business the norm

  • Business profits from wartime industry


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Labor in the War

  • Union membership swells

  • Labor shortage prompts

    • wage increase

    • entry of Mexican-Americans, women, African- Americans to war-related industrial work force



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Labor in the War (2)

  • 200,000 blacks serve in France

    • 42,000 combat troops

  • Great Migration to northern factories

    • blacks must adjust industrial work pace

    • encounter Northern racism

  • 1917-1919--Race riots in urban North

  • Wartime experience prompts new surge of black resistance


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The Treaty of Versailles

  • Common concern about Bolshevik revolution

  • Wilson’s Fourteen points call for non-punitive settlement

  • England and France balk at Fourteen Points

    • want Germany disarmed and crippled

    • want Germany’s colonies

    • skeptical of principle of self-determination


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A Peace at Paris

  • Wilson fails to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty

  • Treaty creates Wilson’s League of Nations

    • Article X of League charter requires members to protect each others’ territorial integrity

  • League's jurisdiction excludes member nations’ domestic affairs



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Rejection in the Senate

  • Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge leads opposition to Treaty, League

  • October, 1919--stroke disables Wilson

  • November--Treaty fails in Senate

  • January, 1920--final defeat of Treaty

  • July, 1921--U.S. peace declared by joint Congressional resolution


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Rejection in the Senate (2)

  • Wilson hopes reelection will provide mandate for League of Nations

  • Landslide for Republican Warren Harding

  • Defeat of League of Nations brings defeat of Progressive spirit


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Postwar Disillusionment

  • To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful

  • The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support

  • Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy”


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