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THE NATION AT WAR. America: Past and Present Chapter 24. A New World Power. American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century Colonialism draws U.S. into international affairs. "I Took the Canal Zone".

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the nation at war

THE NATION AT WAR

America: Past and Present

Chapter 24

a new world power
A New World Power
  • American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century
  • Colonialism draws U.S. into international affairs
i took the canal zone
"I Took the Canal Zone"
  • 1903--Colombian senate refuses to allow U.S. to build Panama Canal
  • Roosevelt abetted revolution to separate Panama from Colombia
  • Independent Panama permits construction
  • 1914--Panama Canal opened
the roosevelt corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • U.S. treats Latin America as a protectorate
  • “Roosevelt Corollary”--U.S. will ensure stability of Latin American finance
  • Roosevelt Corollary spurs intervention in
    • Dominican Republic
    • Panama
    • Cuba
ventures in the far east
Ventures in the Far East
  • 1905--TR mediates the Ruso-Japanese War
  • Diplomatic agreements with Japan
    • Korea under Japanese influence
    • Japan to respect U.S. control of Philippines
  • Japanese resentment builds over Open Door policy in China
taft and dollar diplomacy
Taft and Dollar Diplomacy
  • Taft substitutes economic force for military
  • American bankers replaced Europeans in Caribbean
  • Taft\'s support for U.S. economic influence in Manchuria alienates China, Japan, Russia
foreign policy under wilson
Foreign Policy Under Wilson
  • Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy
  • Tries to base foreign policy on moral force
conducting moral diplomacy
Conducting Moral Diplomacy
  • Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try and settle disputes without war
  • Resorts to military force in Latin America
    • intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft
troubles across the border
Troubles Across the Border
  • 1913--Huerta leads coup in Mexico
  • Wilson denies Huerta recognition
    • Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just government based upon law”
  • Wilson blocks arms shipments to Mexico
  • 1914--U.S. seizes Vera Cruz
  • 1916--U.S. Army pursues “Pancho” Villa across U.S., Mexican border
toward war
Toward War
  • 1914--War in Europe
    • Central Powers headed by Germany
    • Allied Powers headed by England, France
  • Wilson sympathizes with England, seeks U.S. neutrality
the neutrality policy
The Neutrality Policy
  • Progressives see war as wasteful, irrational
  • Suspicion that business seeks war for profit
  • Immigrants prefer U.S. neutrality
  • A long tradition of U.S. neutrality
  • Americans see little national stake in war
freedom of the seas
Freedom of the Seas
  • England blockades Germany
  • U.S. ships to Germany seized
  • Wilson accepts English promise of reimbursement at war’s end
the u boat threat
The U-Boat Threat
  • German submarines violate international law by shooting without warning
  • August, 1915-- Lusitania sunk by U-Boat
  • April, 1916--Wilson issues ultimatum: call off attacks on cargo and passenger ships or U.S.-German relations will be severed
  • Germany pledges to honor U.S. neutrality
he kept us out of war
"He Kept Us Out of War"
  • 1916--Wilson campaigns on record of neutrality
  • Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigns on tougher line against Germany
  • Wilson wins close election
    • wins large labor, progressive vote
    • wins majority of women’s vote
the final months of peace
The Final Months of Peace
  • 1917--Germany lifts restrictions on U-Boats
  • Wilson’s response
    • orders U.S. merchant vessels armed
    • orders U.S. Navy to fire on German U-Boats
  • April 2, 1917--War declared on Germany
over there
Over There
  • U.S. allies in danger of losing war
    • Germans sink 881,000 tons of Allied shipping during April, 1917
    • mutinies in French army
    • British drive in Flanders Stalled
    • Bolsheviks sign separate peace with Germany; German troops to West
    • Italian army routed
  • Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive
mobilization
Mobilization
  • No U.S. contingency plans for war
  • 200,000 troops at war’s beginning
  • Draft conscripts 2.8 million by war’s end
war in the trenches
War in the Trenches
  • Teaming of U.S., English navies halves Allied losses to submarines
  • June 1917--U.S. troops arrive in France
  • Spring, 1918--U.S. forces help halt final German offensive
    • battle of Chateau Thierry
    • battle of Belleau Wood
  • September--Germans out of St. Mihiel
over here
Over Here
  • Victory on front depends on mobilization at home
  • Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production and distribution
  • Wilson begins campaign for American emotions
the conquest of convictions
The Conquest of Convictions
  • 1918--Wilson uses popular anti-German rage to pass the Sedition Act
    • criticism of the war was penalized
    • dissenters imprisoned
  • Summer, 1918--anticommunism prompts deployment of U.S. troops to Russia
  • 1918-1919--“Red Scare” results in domestic suppression of “radicals”
a bureaucratic war
A Bureaucratic War
  • Wartime agencies supervise production, distribution to maximize war effort
  • Government seizes some businesses to keep them running
  • Cooperation between government and business the norm
  • Business profits from wartime industry
labor in the war
Labor in the War
  • Union membership swells
  • Labor shortage prompts
    • wage increase
    • entry of Mexican-Americans, women, African- Americans to war-related industrial work force
labor in the war 2
Labor in the War (2)
  • 200,000 blacks serve in France
    • 42,000 combat troops
  • Great Migration to northern factories
    • blacks must adjust industrial work pace
    • encounter Northern racism
  • 1917-1919--Race riots in urban North
  • Wartime experience prompts new surge of black resistance
the treaty of versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Common concern about Bolshevik revolution
  • Wilson’s Fourteen points call for non-punitive settlement
  • England and France balk at Fourteen Points
    • want Germany disarmed and crippled
    • want Germany’s colonies
    • skeptical of principle of self-determination
a peace at paris
A Peace at Paris
  • Wilson fails to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty
  • Treaty creates Wilson’s League of Nations
    • Article X of League charter requires members to protect each others’ territorial integrity
  • League\'s jurisdiction excludes member nations’ domestic affairs
rejection in the senate
Rejection in the Senate
  • Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge leads opposition to Treaty, League
  • October, 1919--stroke disables Wilson
  • November--Treaty fails in Senate
  • January, 1920--final defeat of Treaty
  • July, 1921--U.S. peace declared by joint Congressional resolution
rejection in the senate 2
Rejection in the Senate (2)
  • Wilson hopes reelection will provide mandate for League of Nations
  • Landslide for Republican Warren Harding
  • Defeat of League of Nations brings defeat of Progressive spirit
postwar disillusionment
Postwar Disillusionment
  • To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful
  • The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support
  • Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy”
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