chapter 24 the nation at war
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Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR. A New World Power. American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901-1920) was aggressive & nationalistic US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam

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a new world power
A New World Power
  • American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901-1920) was aggressive & nationalistic
  • US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam
  • Built a large navy to protect the colonial empire, estab’d US Army War College
  • More & more involved in economic ventures abroad


i took the canal zone
"I Took the Canal Zone"
  • TR wanted a canal to link the Atlantic & Pacific oceans across the isthmus connecting N Am & S Am
    • It would be open to ships of all nations
  • Desired route was in Panama, a Columbian possession ~ Columbia said “no deal”
    • TR considered seizing the area, but settled for encouraging a revolution & then sent US forces to prevent Colombia from putting down the revolt
  • The new, independent Panama permitted construction to begin in 1904
    • 1914 ~ Panama Canal opened


the roosevelt corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • US treated Latin America as a protectorate
  • “Roosevelt Corollary” ~ Warned Latin Am countries to keep their affairs in order or face US intervention
  • Intervention occurred in…
    • Dominican Republic
    • Panama
    • Cuba


ventures in the far east
Ventures in the Far East
  • 1905 ~ Roosevelt mediated the Russo-Japanese War (Russia losing/Japan bankrupt)
  • Taft-Katsura Agreement (Taft Sec of War)
    • Korea under Japanese influence
    • Japan to respect US control of Philippines
  • 1907 ~ ”Gentleman’s Agreement” Japan promises to stop immigration
  • 1908 ~ (Sec State) Root-Takahira Agreement
    • Maintain status quo in Far East
    • Accept Open Door & Chinese independence
  • 1915 ~ Japan seized German colonies in China and claimed authority over China


taft dollar diplomacy
Taft & Dollar Diplomacy
  • Taft substituted economic force for military
  • American bankers assumed Honduran debt to English bondholders, took over assets of the Natl Bank of Haiti & Nicaragua’s Natl Bank
  • Taft\'s support for US economic influence in Manchuria alienated China, Japan, Russia
  • Generally speaking, Dollar Diplomacy promoted US financial & business interests abroad


foreign policy under wilson
Foreign Policy Under Wilson
  • Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy, yet he faced crisis after crisis foreign affairs, including the outbreak of WWI
  • Conducted his own diplomacy, composing diplomatic notes on his own typewriter
  • “The force of America is the force of moral principle.”
    • Militarism, colonialism & war must be brought under control
    • “Extend the blessings of democracy”


conducting moral diplomacy
Conducting Moral Diplomacy
  • Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try & settle disputes without war
  • Resorted to military force in Latin America
    • Intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft
troubles across the border
Troubles Across the Border
  • 1913 ~ Gen Victoriano Huerta led coup in Mexico (Francisco Madero)
  • Wilson denied Huerta recognition
    • Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just govt based upon law”
  • Wilson blocked arms shipments to Mexico
  • 1914 ~ US seized Vera Cruz
  • 1916 ~ US Army pursued “Pancho” Villa


activities of the united states in the caribbean 1898 1930
Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898–1930

Several Americans killed


toward war
Toward War
  • War in Europe
    • Large armies dominated Europe & a web of alliances entangled nations, maximizing risks
    • June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne in Austria-Hungary assassinated by Bosnian linked to Serbia
  • Central Powers ~ Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Turkey
  • Allied Powers ~ Eng, France, Italy, & Russia
  • Wilson sympathized with Allies, but sought US neutrality


the neutrality policy
The Neutrality Policy
  • Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational
  • Suspicion that business sought war for profit
  • Immigrants preferred US neutrality
  • A long tradition of US neutrality
  • Americans saw little national stake in war


freedom of the seas
Freedom of the Seas
  • England blockade of Germany
  • US ships to Germany seized by English
  • Wilson accepted English promise of reimbursement at war’s end
  • Germans used U-boats to interrupt trade with Allies
  • US trade with Allies boomed, but was increasingly financed by loans from American banks
  • Allies owed US banks $2B by 1917


the u boat threat
The U-Boat Threat
  • German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning
  • Wilson was urged to ban travel, but he refused
  • 1915 ~ Lusitania sunk by U-Boat
    • Wilson demanded Germans protect passenger ships & pay for losses
  • April, 1916 ~ Wilson issued ultimatum: Call off attacks on cargo & passenger ships or US-German relations would be severed
  • May, 1916 ~ SussexPledge—Germany pledges to honor US neutrality


he kept us out of war
"He Kept Us Out of War"
  • 1915-16 ~ Wilson campaigned for peace & “preparedness” ~ Growing U-Boat threat
  • Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigned on tougher line against Germany
  • Wilson won close election
    • Won large labor, progressive vote
    • Won majority of women’s vote


the final months of peace
The Final Months of Peace
  • Feb 1917 ~ Germany renewed U-Boat attacks
  • The British govt provided a copy of an intercepted telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico ~ The (Arthur) Zimmerman Telegram
    • Wanted Mexico to enter the war against the US
  • Wilson’s response
    • Ordered US merchant vessels armed
    • Ordered US Navy to fire on German U-Boats
  • April 6, 1917 ~ War declared on Germany


over there
Over There
  • Allies were in danger of losing the war
    • Germans sunk 881,000 T of Allied shipping during April, 1917
    • Mutinies in French army
    • British drive in Flanders stalled
    • Bolsheviks signed separate peace with Germany; German troops to West
    • Italian army routed on southern flank
  • Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive


mobilization us not prepared
MobilizationUS Not Prepared
  • Wilson placed John J. “Black Jack” Pershing in command of the Am Expeditionary Force
  • No US contingency plans for war
    • 300k old rifles, 1.5k machine guns, 155 out of date airplanes, 2 field radio sets
    • 200k troops at war’s beginning
  • Congress ~ Selective Service Act
    • Conscripted 2.8M by war’s end
    • African Americans drafted as well


war in the trenches
War in the Trenches
  • Teaming of US, English navies reduced Allied losses to submarines by half
  • June, 1917 ~ US troops arrived in France
  • Spring, 1918 ~ US forces helped halt final German offensive
    • Battle of Chateau Thierry
    • Battle of Belleau Wood
  • September ~ Germans out of St. Mihiel
  • First use of poison gas & tanks


the western front u s participation 19181
The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918

Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day


the western front u s participation 19182
The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918

Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day

112k Americans Died


over here
Over Here
  • Victory on front depends on mobilization at home
    • War financed primarily by the sale of “Liberty Bonds”
  • Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production & distribution
  • Wilson campaigned for American mind’s, the “conquest of of their convictions,” was as vital as events on the battlefield


the conquest of convictions
The Conquest of Convictions
  • Wartime laws to repress dissent
    • Espionage Act ~ Outlawed acts to aid the enemy, even encouraging disloyalty
    • Trading with the Enemy Act ~ Govt can censor foreign language press
    • Sedition Act ~ Criticism of the war made a crime
    • 1.5k dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs
    • Numerous atrocities (lynching, etc.)
  • Summer, 1918 ~ Anticommunism prompts deployment of US troops to Russia to “protect US supplies from the Germans”
    • 1917 Bolshevik Revolution ~ Vladimir Lenin
    • Wilson feared the communist idea would spread


a bureaucratic war
A Bureaucratic War
  • War Industries Board & other agencies supervised production, distribution to maximize war effort
  • Govt seized some businesses to keep them running
  • Cooperation between govt & business the norm
  • Business profits from wartime industry


labor in the war
Labor in the War
  • Union membership swells
  • Labor shortage prompts
    • Wage increase
    • Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war-related industrial work force
  • Labor saw a chance to “trade labor peace for labor advances”


labor in the war1
Labor in the War
  • 200k blacks served in France
    • 42k combat troops
    • Expected to find better conditions when they returned
  • Great Migration to northern factories
    • Blacks must adjust industrial work pace
    • Encounter Northern racism
  • 1917–1919 ~ Race riots in urban North
  • Wartime experience prompted new surge of black resistance to discrimination


the treaty of versailles official end to wwi
The Treaty of VersaillesOfficial end to WWI
  • Common concern about Bolshevik revolution
  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for non-punitive settlement
  • England & France balk at Fourteen Points
    • Want Germany disarmed & crippled
    • Want Germany’s colonies
    • Skeptical of principle of self-determination


the treaty of versailles
The Treaty of Versailles

Near Paris, France

a peace at paris
A Peace at Paris
  • Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty
  • Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations
    • Article X of League charter required members to protect each others’ territorial integrity
  • League\'s jurisdiction excluded member nations’ domestic affairs


rejection in the senate
Rejection in the Senate
  • William Borah (R-ID) led “irreconcibles” who opposed treaty on any grounds
    • 14 Republican senators against every aspect of the League of Nations
  • October, 1919: Stroke disables Wilson
    • November: Treaty fails in Senate
  • January, 1920: Final defeat of Treaty
  • July, 1921: US peace declared by joint Congressional resolution


rejection in the senate1
Rejection in the Senate
  • Wilson hopes democratic victory in 1920 election would provide mandate for League of Nations
  • Landslide for Republican Warren Harding
  • Defeat of League of Nations brought defeat of Progressive spirit


the election of 1920
The Election of 1920

James M. Cox

See picture p.708


postwar disillusionment
Postwar Disillusionment
  • To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful
  • The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support
  • Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy”