Chapter 24 the nation at war
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Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR. A New World Power. American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901-1920) was aggressive & nationalistic US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam

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A New World Power

  • American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901-1920) was aggressive & nationalistic

  • US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam

  • Built a large navy to protect the colonial empire, estab’d US Army War College

  • More & more involved in economic ventures abroad


"I Took the Canal Zone"

  • TR wanted a canal to link the Atlantic & Pacific oceans across the isthmus connecting N Am & S Am

    • It would be open to ships of all nations

  • Desired route was in Panama, a Columbian possession ~ Columbia said “no deal”

    • TR considered seizing the area, but settled for encouraging a revolution & then sent US forces to prevent Colombia from putting down the revolt

  • The new, independent Panama permitted construction to begin in 1904

    • 1914 ~ Panama Canal opened


The Panama Canal Zone


The Roosevelt Corollary

  • US treated Latin America as a protectorate

  • “Roosevelt Corollary” ~ Warned Latin Am countries to keep their affairs in order or face US intervention

  • Intervention occurred in…

    • Dominican Republic

    • Panama

    • Cuba


Ventures in the Far East

  • 1905 ~ Roosevelt mediated the Russo-Japanese War (Russia losing/Japan bankrupt)

  • Taft-Katsura Agreement (Taft Sec of War)

    • Korea under Japanese influence

    • Japan to respect US control of Philippines

  • 1907 ~ ”Gentleman’s Agreement” Japan promises to stop immigration

  • 1908 ~ (Sec State) Root-Takahira Agreement

    • Maintain status quo in Far East

    • Accept Open Door & Chinese independence

  • 1915 ~ Japan seized German colonies in China and claimed authority over China


Taft & Dollar Diplomacy

  • Taft substituted economic force for military

  • American bankers assumed Honduran debt to English bondholders, took over assets of the Natl Bank of Haiti & Nicaragua’s Natl Bank

  • Taft's support for US economic influence in Manchuria alienated China, Japan, Russia

  • Generally speaking, Dollar Diplomacy promoted US financial & business interests abroad


Foreign Policy Under Wilson

  • Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy, yet he faced crisis after crisis foreign affairs, including the outbreak of WWI

  • Conducted his own diplomacy, composing diplomatic notes on his own typewriter

  • “The force of America is the force of moral principle.”

    • Militarism, colonialism & war must be brought under control

    • “Extend the blessings of democracy”


Conducting Moral Diplomacy

  • Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try & settle disputes without war

  • Resorted to military force in Latin America

    • Intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft

Troubles Across the Border

  • 1913 ~ Gen Victoriano Huerta led coup in Mexico (Francisco Madero)

  • Wilson denied Huerta recognition

    • Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just govt based upon law”

  • Wilson blocked arms shipments to Mexico

  • 1914 ~ US seized Vera Cruz

  • 1916 ~ US Army pursued “Pancho” Villa


Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898–1930

Several Americans killed


Toward War

  • War in Europe

    • Large armies dominated Europe & a web of alliances entangled nations, maximizing risks

    • June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne in Austria-Hungary assassinated by Bosnian linked to Serbia

  • Central Powers ~ Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Turkey

  • Allied Powers ~ Eng, France, Italy, & Russia

  • Wilson sympathized with Allies, but sought US neutrality


The Neutrality Policy

  • Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational

  • Suspicion that business sought war for profit

  • Immigrants preferred US neutrality

  • A long tradition of US neutrality

  • Americans saw little national stake in war


Freedom of the Seas

  • England blockade of Germany

  • US ships to Germany seized by English

  • Wilson accepted English promise of reimbursement at war’s end

  • Germans used U-boats to interrupt trade with Allies

  • US trade with Allies boomed, but was increasingly financed by loans from American banks

  • Allies owed US banks $2B by 1917


The U-Boat Threat

  • German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning

  • Wilson was urged to ban travel, but he refused

  • 1915 ~ Lusitania sunk by U-Boat

    • Wilson demanded Germans protect passenger ships & pay for losses

  • April, 1916 ~ Wilson issued ultimatum: Call off attacks on cargo & passenger ships or US-German relations would be severed

  • May, 1916 ~ SussexPledge—Germany pledges to honor US neutrality


"He Kept Us Out of War"

  • 1915-16 ~ Wilson campaigned for peace & “preparedness” ~ Growing U-Boat threat

  • Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigned on tougher line against Germany

  • Wilson won close election

    • Won large labor, progressive vote

    • Won majority of women’s vote



The Final Months of Peace

  • Feb 1917 ~ Germany renewed U-Boat attacks

  • The British govt provided a copy of an intercepted telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico ~ The (Arthur) Zimmerman Telegram

    • Wanted Mexico to enter the war against the US

  • Wilson’s response

    • Ordered US merchant vessels armed

    • Ordered US Navy to fire on German U-Boats

  • April 6, 1917 ~ War declared on Germany


US Losses to the German Submarine Campaign, 1916–1918


Over There

  • Allies were in danger of losing the war

    • Germans sunk 881,000 T of Allied shipping during April, 1917

    • Mutinies in French army

    • British drive in Flanders stalled

    • Bolsheviks signed separate peace with Germany; German troops to West

    • Italian army routed on southern flank

  • Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive


MobilizationUS Not Prepared

  • Wilson placed John J. “Black Jack” Pershing in command of the Am Expeditionary Force

  • No US contingency plans for war

    • 300k old rifles, 1.5k machine guns, 155 out of date airplanes, 2 field radio sets

    • 200k troops at war’s beginning

  • Congress ~ Selective Service Act

    • Conscripted 2.8M by war’s end

    • African Americans drafted as well


European Alliances & Battlefronts, 1914–1917


War in the Trenches

  • Teaming of US, English navies reduced Allied losses to submarines by half

  • June, 1917 ~ US troops arrived in France

  • Spring, 1918 ~ US forces helped halt final German offensive

    • Battle of Chateau Thierry

    • Battle of Belleau Wood

  • September ~ Germans out of St. Mihiel

  • First use of poison gas & tanks


The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918


The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918

Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day


The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918

Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day

112k Americans Died


Over Here

  • Victory on front depends on mobilization at home

    • War financed primarily by the sale of “Liberty Bonds”

  • Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production & distribution

  • Wilson campaigned for American mind’s, the “conquest of of their convictions,” was as vital as events on the battlefield


The Conquest of Convictions

  • Wartime laws to repress dissent

    • Espionage Act ~ Outlawed acts to aid the enemy, even encouraging disloyalty

    • Trading with the Enemy Act ~ Govt can censor foreign language press

    • Sedition Act ~ Criticism of the war made a crime

    • 1.5k dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs

    • Numerous atrocities (lynching, etc.)

  • Summer, 1918 ~ Anticommunism prompts deployment of US troops to Russia to “protect US supplies from the Germans”

    • 1917 Bolshevik Revolution ~ Vladimir Lenin

    • Wilson feared the communist idea would spread


A Bureaucratic War

  • War Industries Board & other agencies supervised production, distribution to maximize war effort

  • Govt seized some businesses to keep them running

  • Cooperation between govt & business the norm

  • Business profits from wartime industry


Labor in the War

  • Union membership swells

  • Labor shortage prompts

    • Wage increase

    • Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war-related industrial work force

  • Labor saw a chance to “trade labor peace for labor advances”


African American Migration Northward, 1910–1920


Labor in the War

  • 200k blacks served in France

    • 42k combat troops

    • Expected to find better conditions when they returned

  • Great Migration to northern factories

    • Blacks must adjust industrial work pace

    • Encounter Northern racism

  • 1917–1919 ~ Race riots in urban North

  • Wartime experience prompted new surge of black resistance to discrimination


The Treaty of VersaillesOfficial end to WWI

  • Common concern about Bolshevik revolution

  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for non-punitive settlement

  • England & France balk at Fourteen Points

    • Want Germany disarmed & crippled

    • Want Germany’s colonies

    • Skeptical of principle of self-determination


The Treaty of Versailles

Near Paris, France

A Peace at Paris

  • Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty

  • Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations

    • Article X of League charter required members to protect each others’ territorial integrity

  • League's jurisdiction excluded member nations’ domestic affairs



Europe after The Treaty Versailles, 1919


Rejection in the Senate

  • William Borah (R-ID) led “irreconcibles” who opposed treaty on any grounds

    • 14 Republican senators against every aspect of the League of Nations

  • October, 1919: Stroke disables Wilson

    • November: Treaty fails in Senate

  • January, 1920: Final defeat of Treaty

  • July, 1921: US peace declared by joint Congressional resolution


Rejection in the Senate

  • Wilson hopes democratic victory in 1920 election would provide mandate for League of Nations

  • Landslide for Republican Warren Harding

  • Defeat of League of Nations brought defeat of Progressive spirit


The Election of 1920

James M. Cox

See picture p.708


Postwar Disillusionment

  • To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful

  • The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support

  • Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy”




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