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STARTING FROM NATURE PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Here’s a fun (but maybe scary) thought experiment: STARTING FROM NATURE NUCLEAR WAR ? RUN OUT OF PETROLEUM ? WHAT IF WE LOST OUR INDUSTRY ? …. COULD WE START AGAIN ? Can chemicals be obtained from natural sources? Where do we get starting materials ? TODAY WE GET THEM FROM PETROLEUM

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STARTING FROM NATURE

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Here’s a fun (but maybe scary) thought experiment:

STARTING FROM NATURE

  • NUCLEAR WAR ?

  • RUN OUT OF PETROLEUM ?

WHAT IF WE LOST OUR INDUSTRY ?

…. COULD WE START AGAIN ?

Can chemicals be obtained from natural sources?


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Where do we get starting materials ?

TODAY WE GET THEM FROM PETROLEUM

R-H

Refineries convert crude petroleum to a wide

variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics.

R2C=CR2

Chemical feedstock industries convert these

hydrocarbons into chlorinated hydrocarbons

(free radical chlorination) and alcohols .

R-Cl

R-OH

Most of the simple alcohols and halides can be

obtained commercially from chemical suppliers.

What if we run out of petroleum or our industries fail?


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HERE ARE SOME NATURAL

SOURCES OF IMPORTANT

CHEMICALS …….


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C

a

C

O

C

a

O

+

C

O

3

2

C

a

O

+

2

C

C

a

C

+

C

O

2

C

a

(

O

H

)

C

a

C

H

O

+

+

2

2

2

2

H

C

C

H

LIMESTONE COULD BE A SOURCE OF CARBON

Acetylene from limestone

Lime Kilns

high temp oven

Limestone Rock

D

STEP ONE

Heat to

remove CO2

calcium carbonate

calcium oxide

(Quicklime)

STEP TWO

D

Add charcoal

and heat again

calcium carbide

lime

STEP THREE

Add water to

calcium carbide

a source of

carbon atoms

acetylene


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Starting From Nature (Alcohols)

(using renewable sources)

soft wood trees

just heat the wood, no solvent

distill

methanol

(wood alcohol)

corn, rice, potatoes

ethanol

Generally used for drinking.

Could be used to fuel cars

or as a source of carbon atoms.


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STARTING FROM NATURE (Bases)

NaOH

KOH

LYE

in H2O

burn

BIRCH

ALDER

ASHES

H2O

ashes contain

sodium and

potassium

oxides

extract with

water

softwood

trees

Na2O, K2O

Urea

animals

NaOH

NH3

Ammonia

or

bacteria


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STARTING FROM NATURE (Acids)

old silver mines (tailings)

volcano

Pb

burn

( Pb is a catalyst

without it only

SO2 forms )

O2

O2

+

Sulfuric Acid

ocean salt

Hydrochloric Acid

strong acid

+

+

Chlorine

oxidation

or electrolysis


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Phosphorous Trichloride and Thionyl Chloride

There are also

mineral sources.

animals

evaporate water

distill residue

P

URINE

after standing 2 wks

(bacterial action)

Phosphorous

Phosphorous

Trichloride

P + Cl2

PCl3

S + Cl2

S2Cl2

SO3 + S2Cl2

SOCl2 + SO2 + S

Thionyl Chloride


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