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Speechreading Training Chapter 6. Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D. Lip Movements. “…it is important to realize that we move our articulators to produce acoustically distinct sounds and NOT visually contrastive movements.” Mark Ross. Speechreading Factoid.

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Speechreading training chapter 6

Speechreading TrainingChapter 6

Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D.

Lip movements

Lip Movements

  • “…it is important to realize that we move our articulators to produce acoustically distinct sounds and NOT visually contrastive movements.”

    • Mark Ross

Speechreading factoid

Speechreading Factoid

  • Campbell et al, (1981) surveyed the literature and found 38-58% of individuals with HL have accompanying visual deficiencies

  • Johnson et al (1981) found 65% entering NTID demonstrated defective vision

  • Vision loss may be greater among individuals with HL

  • Individuals with HL need vision evaluation***

Auditory plus vision

Auditory plus Vision

  • When BOTH auditory and visual information is available, individuals with hearing loss tend to do better on communication tasks

  • Example (Auditory plus Vision):

    • Speech Recognition Score = 50%

    • Speechreading Score = 20%

    • Combined Visual/Auditory Score = 90%

9 00 am appointment

9:00 am Appointment

  • The waiting room is filled with several individuals to evaluate. Which patient will benefit from speechreading training?

    • Recent cochlear implant patient

    • Recent new user of digital hearing aid who has had hearing loss for fifty years

    • Three year-old child with profound loss

    • Patient with recent sudden onset hearing loss

Traditional lipreading methods

Traditional Lipreading Methods

Four lipreading methods were introduced into the U.S.:

  • Mueller-Walle introduced by Bruhn

  • Nitchie introduced by Nitchie

  • Kinzie introduced by Kinzie

  • Jena introduced by Bunger

Speechreading factoid1

Speechreading Factoid

  • Three of the lipreading methods introduced into the U.S. were implemented by individuals with normal hearing until adulthood, at which time they acquired a significant hearing loss, and sought assistance.

  • They developed methods that bear their names: Bruhn, Kinzie, and Nitchie.

  • Bunger later wrote about the Jena method.

Analytic synthetic

Analytic & Synthetic

  • Analytic approach

    • perceive each of the basic parts before the whole can be identified

      • Syllable considered to be the basic unit

      • Bruhn & Jena methods

  • Synthetic approach

    • Perception of the whole is paramount to perception of the basic parts

      • Sentence considered to be the basic unit

      • Nitchie and Kinzie methods

Mueller walle method

Mueller-Walle Method

  • Originated in Germany

  • Martha Emma Bruhn studied lipreading with Julius Mueller-Walle in Hamburg, Germany and introduced method in the US

  • Hallmark: rapid syllable drill

    • emphasis on quickly identifying position and movement of speech sounds produced

    • syllable rhythmic drills: she-ma-flea and she-may-free

    • Practiced recognizing homophenous words using sentence cues to distinguish meaning

Nitchie method

Nitchie Method

  • Edward Nitchie became deaf during adolescence

  • Eventually established his own school for the deaf in NY

  • Initially developed an analytic approach, altering the approach to a synthetic approach (credited with developing synthetic approach to speechreading)

  • Speechreader studies articulatory movements by viewing meaningful monosyllabic words to develop eye training

  • Advocated use of sentences and stories to train mind to comprehend the general meaning connected discourse

Kinzie method

Kinzie Method

  • Cora acquired HL while medical student in PA

  • Studied with Bruhn and then Nitchie combining best methods from both approaches

  • Unique feature: graded lessons for children and adults with sentences as basis of instruction

  • They recommended all sentences be “definite, natural, interesting, pleasing, rhythmical, and dignified”

Jena method

Jena Method

  • Developed by Karl Brauckman in Jena, Germany and promoted by Anna Bunger from Michigan

  • Emphasizes syllable drills, rhythm practice, and kinesthetic awareness

  • Material presented in rhythmic manner reinforcing fact that speech is rhythmic

  • Focused on mimetic (imitating movements) and kinesthetic (perception of movement, position, etc.) forms and sensations

Recent speechreading trends

Recent Speechreading Trends

  • Decline of speechreading as sole element of AR with advent of technology

  • Technology (HA, CI, ALDs) is providing opportunities for individuals to make increasing use of audible speech and other audible sounds

  • Newer lipreading approaches tend to be eclectic

    • Modification or combinations of earlier synthetic and analytic approaches

Holistic approach

Holistic Approach

  • Increase the child’s knowledge of the speechreading process

  • Increase the child’s ability to generate strategies to facilitate more successful communication

  • Increase the child’s confidence in the efficacy of high probability success

  • Increase the child’s tolerance for communicative situations that have a higher degree of frustration

  • Increase the child’s ability to generate personal goals for improving speechreading

  • Increase the child’s motivation to improve speechreading abilities

Efficacy of speechreading training

Efficacy of Speechreading Training

  • Studies are mixed regarding demonstrating improvement following treatment for adults

  • Little research regarding children

    • Children may have greater potential for benefit from speechreading training than adults

Developing speechreading skills

Developing Speechreading Skills

  • First step is usually instructional and includes consideration for the process

  • Second step may require speechreaders to reflect on their on habits and skills

  • Third step may require speechreaders to identify difficult listening situations and formulate solutions

  • Fourth step is introduction of formal speechreading lessons

Analytic speechreading training

Analytic Speechreading Training

  • Focus on vowel and consonant recognition

  • Underlying logic this curricula is to gradually increase reliance on auditory signal for discriminating phonemic contrasts while they are speechreading

Reliance on Vision

Reliance on Audition

Analytic vowel training

Analytic Vowel Training

  • Initial training highly contrastive features

    • i u a

  • Differ in BOTH formant structure and on the mouth

  • Back vs front vowels

    • I i e ae front vowels

    • u U o back vowels

Acoustic vs tongue position

Acoustic vs Tongue Position

Analytic training objectives

Analytic Training Objectives


  • Will discriminate words with i and u

  • Will discriminate words with i and a

  • Will discriminate words with u and a

  • Will identify words with i u and a

Discriminate vowels with i and u

Discriminate Vowels with i and u

Identify vowels with u

Identify Vowels with u

Analytical consonant training

Analytical Consonant Training

  • Features – manner, place, voicing

    • Place – visible AND audible

    • Manner and voicing – NOT visible, but audible

Consonant place of production

Consonant Place of Production

k g ng



Sh zh ch jd



p b m


t d n s z l



f v



Analytic consonant objectives

Analytic Consonant Objectives

  • will discriminate consonant pairs that differ in place of production and share either voice or manner

  • will discriminate consonant pairs that share similar place of production but differ in manner and voice

  • will discriminate consonant pairs that share place and manner and/or voice

  • will identify consonants that share manner of production, using a four-item response set

  • will identify consonants from a six-item response set of voiced or voiceless consonants

Discriminate consonant pairs that differ in place and share either voice or manner

Discriminate Consonant Pairs that Differ in Place and Share Either Voice or Manner

Synthetic speechreading training objectives

Synthetic Speechreading Training Objectives

  • will follow simple directions using a closed set response

  • will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four dissimilar pictures

  • will identify a sentence illustration from a set of four similar pictures

  • will listen plus lipread to two related sentences, and then draw a picture about them or paraphrase them

  • will speechread a paragraph-long narrative and then answer questions about it

Example of synthetic approach

Example of Synthetic Approach

Sentences concerning cooking:

  • I added a cup of flour.

  • The bread is in the oven.

  • Will you hand me the measuring cup.

  • I need the box of sugar.

  • The mixer is in the cabinet.

  • The oven is set to 300 degrees.

  • Put the bowl in the sink, please

  • The pan is filled with batter.

  • I will beat the eggs.

  • Please pour a cup of milk.



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