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LABORATORY FIVE. The Skeletal Muscle System: Anatomy. Organization & Terminology. Epimysium: Around entire muscle (bundles of fascicles) Perimysium: Around fascicles (bundles of muscle fibers) Endomysium: Around each muscle cell (fiber) P81, Fig. 5.1 – This is a whole muscle

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LABORATORY FIVE

The Skeletal Muscle System: Anatomy


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Organization & Terminology

  • Epimysium: Around entire muscle (bundles of fascicles)

  • Perimysium: Around fascicles (bundles of muscle fibers)

  • Endomysium: Around each muscle cell (fiber)

  • P81, Fig. 5.1 – This is a whole muscle

  • P82, P83, p84, Fig. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8 – These are each one muscle cell (fiber) – Notice the peripheral nuclei

  • P82, Fig. 5.2 – Microscopic view of a skeletal muscle

    • Sarcomere: contractile subunits

    • Z lines: separate sarcomeres

    • A (Dark) bands - length of myosin

    • I (Light) bands - actin only


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Motor Unit & Neuromuscular Junction

  • Motor Unit (P82, Fig. 5.3): motor neuron + muscle fibers it innervates (stimulates)

  • Neuromuscular junction (P83, Fig. 5.6): the point of communication between a motor nerve and a skeletal muscle fiber

  • Motor end plate: the contact surface on sarcolemma


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Skeletal muscles Contraction

  • In order for contraction of a muscle to cause movement, there are attachment sites on two different bones:

  • Origin: Less movable attachment

  • Insertion: More movable attachment

    • Action: Moves insertion toward origin


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Muscle Action and Origin/Insertion

  • You need to learn the action of muscles listed on the provided handout – use flash cards or highlight them in your lab manual

  • For muscles with more than one listed action, learn the action that pertains to the joint within parenthesis

  • Origin & insertion are extra credit learning material. Learn all muscles Origin and Insertion, not just the muscles listed on the provided sheet

  • Both origin/insertion and action questions will be just a written question not on the model


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Identification of Human Skeletal Muscles

  • Mostly superficial muscles and only a few deep muscles

  • ID some attachments by name (indicated with an * in the tables)

  • ID muscles that work the head, neck, shoulder, anterior & posterior trunk, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle

  • View superficial muscles on leg and arm models (do not take them apart)

    • Flexors: anterior view

    • Extensors: posterior view

  • View deep muscles on the torso model and on the head, neck, and shoulder model

    • Right side superficial muscles

    • Left side deep muscles


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Head & Neck

  • P85, Table 5.1: Epicranius consists of frontalis, occipitalis, galea aponeurotica

  • Scalenes: Remove the sternocleidomastoideus

  • Posterior trunk

    • Splenius & Erector Spinae: Remove Trapezius & Latissimus dorsi


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(aponeurosis)

Trunk

Transversus abdominis can only be viewed internally




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Actions of Human Skeletal Muscles (Extra Credit)

  • When a skeletal muscle contracts, the insertion moves toward the origin producing an action (a movement)

  • The resulting action depends on the anatomy of the joint and the type of movement it can generate

    • Flexion/Extension: A movement that decreases/increases the angle between two bone

    • Abduction/Adduction: Movement of an appendage away from/toward the midline

    • Rotation: Movement of a bone around an axis

    • Circumduction: Movement of an appendage in a circle around a joint

    • Pronation/Supination: Turning the palm posterior/anterior

    • Inversion/Eversion: Turning the sole of the foot toward/away from the midline

    • Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion: Moving the ankle joint to “stand on your heel”/“point your toe”

    • P104, Table 5.2: draw a stick figure in anatomical position & circle the appropriate joint in the 1st column. In column 2 & 3 you can just draw the joint using arrows pointing in opposite directions to indicate the movement


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Prioritize studying for Lab 5

  • Name of muscles – most questions

    • ALL of the muscles included in the lab manual are assigned for identification purposes

  • Gross and microscopic view of skeletal muscle

  • Assigned muscle actions (provided handout)

    • e.g.: Name the muscle that extends elbow: triceps brachii

  • Origin & insertion of all muscles in the lab manual (extra credit)


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Grades for First Practicum

  • Answer key is posted on the window

  • Grades “A”, “B”, “C”: Congratulations!

    • Continue doing what you’re doing

    • Help your classmates get better

    • Tell them your learning strategy

    • Make sure you get a grade “C” or better on the lecture portion of the course

  • Grade “D” in lab, and “C” or better in lecture

    • Read ahead, get yourself familiarized with the upcoming lab

    • Visit the last hour of other labs with instructors’ permission

    • Attend open lab regularly

    • Make sure you turn in all your completed lab reports on time

    • Do all the extra credit assignments

    • Make sure you do well on the lecture portion of the course

  • Grade “F”

    • This should be a wake up call for you

    • What you have been doing is not working for you

    • Change your learning strategy

    • Talk to your classmates who have been successful on the first practicum

    • Form study groups


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