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LABORATORY FIVE. The Skeletal Muscle System: Anatomy. Organization & Terminology. Epimysium: Around entire muscle (bundles of fascicles) Perimysium: Around fascicles (bundles of muscle fibers) Endomysium: Around each muscle cell (fiber) P81, Fig. 5.1 – This is a whole muscle

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laboratory five

LABORATORY FIVE

The Skeletal Muscle System: Anatomy

organization terminology
Organization & Terminology
  • Epimysium: Around entire muscle (bundles of fascicles)
  • Perimysium: Around fascicles (bundles of muscle fibers)
  • Endomysium: Around each muscle cell (fiber)
  • P81, Fig. 5.1 – This is a whole muscle
  • P82, P83, p84, Fig. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8 – These are each one muscle cell (fiber) – Notice the peripheral nuclei
  • P82, Fig. 5.2 – Microscopic view of a skeletal muscle
    • Sarcomere: contractile subunits
    • Z lines: separate sarcomeres
    • A (Dark) bands - length of myosin
    • I (Light) bands - actin only
motor unit neuromuscular junction
Motor Unit & Neuromuscular Junction
  • Motor Unit (P82, Fig. 5.3): motor neuron + muscle fibers it innervates (stimulates)
  • Neuromuscular junction (P83, Fig. 5.6): the point of communication between a motor nerve and a skeletal muscle fiber
  • Motor end plate: the contact surface on sarcolemma
slide4

Skeletal muscles Contraction

  • In order for contraction of a muscle to cause movement, there are attachment sites on two different bones:
  • Origin: Less movable attachment
  • Insertion: More movable attachment
    • Action: Moves insertion toward origin
muscle action and origin insertion
Muscle Action and Origin/Insertion
  • You need to learn the action of muscles listed on the provided handout – use flash cards or highlight them in your lab manual
  • For muscles with more than one listed action, learn the action that pertains to the joint within parenthesis
  • Origin & insertion are extra credit learning material. Learn all muscles Origin and Insertion, not just the muscles listed on the provided sheet
  • Both origin/insertion and action questions will be just a written question not on the model
identification of human skeletal muscles
Identification of Human Skeletal Muscles
  • Mostly superficial muscles and only a few deep muscles
  • ID some attachments by name (indicated with an * in the tables)
  • ID muscles that work the head, neck, shoulder, anterior & posterior trunk, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle
  • View superficial muscles on leg and arm models (do not take them apart)
    • Flexors: anterior view
    • Extensors: posterior view
  • View deep muscles on the torso model and on the head, neck, and shoulder model
    • Right side superficial muscles
    • Left side deep muscles
slide7

Head & Neck

  • P85, Table 5.1: Epicranius consists of frontalis, occipitalis, galea aponeurotica
  • Scalenes: Remove the sternocleidomastoideus
  • Posterior trunk
    • Splenius & Erector Spinae: Remove Trapezius & Latissimus dorsi
slide8

(aponeurosis)

Trunk

Transversus abdominis can only be viewed internally

actions of human skeletal muscles extra credit
Actions of Human Skeletal Muscles (Extra Credit)
  • When a skeletal muscle contracts, the insertion moves toward the origin producing an action (a movement)
  • The resulting action depends on the anatomy of the joint and the type of movement it can generate
    • Flexion/Extension: A movement that decreases/increases the angle between two bone
    • Abduction/Adduction: Movement of an appendage away from/toward the midline
    • Rotation: Movement of a bone around an axis
    • Circumduction: Movement of an appendage in a circle around a joint
    • Pronation/Supination: Turning the palm posterior/anterior
    • Inversion/Eversion: Turning the sole of the foot toward/away from the midline
    • Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion: Moving the ankle joint to “stand on your heel”/“point your toe”
    • P104, Table 5.2: draw a stick figure in anatomical position & circle the appropriate joint in the 1st column. In column 2 & 3 you can just draw the joint using arrows pointing in opposite directions to indicate the movement
prioritize studying for lab 5
Prioritize studying for Lab 5
  • Name of muscles – most questions
    • ALL of the muscles included in the lab manual are assigned for identification purposes
  • Gross and microscopic view of skeletal muscle
  • Assigned muscle actions (provided handout)
    • e.g.: Name the muscle that extends elbow: triceps brachii
  • Origin & insertion of all muscles in the lab manual (extra credit)
grades for first practicum
Grades for First Practicum
  • Answer key is posted on the window
  • Grades “A”, “B”, “C”: Congratulations!
    • Continue doing what you’re doing
    • Help your classmates get better
    • Tell them your learning strategy
    • Make sure you get a grade “C” or better on the lecture portion of the course
  • Grade “D” in lab, and “C” or better in lecture
    • Read ahead, get yourself familiarized with the upcoming lab
    • Visit the last hour of other labs with instructors’ permission
    • Attend open lab regularly
    • Make sure you turn in all your completed lab reports on time
    • Do all the extra credit assignments
    • Make sure you do well on the lecture portion of the course
  • Grade “F”
    • This should be a wake up call for you
    • What you have been doing is not working for you
    • Change your learning strategy
    • Talk to your classmates who have been successful on the first practicum
    • Form study groups
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