Fishes reptiles and amphibians
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Fishes, Reptiles, and Amphibians. ENVIRON 311/EEB 320 Winter 2007. Fishes. Lepisosteus osseus : Longnose gar. Fish Anatomy. Fish Anatomy. Heterocercal tail Bony supports extend through top of caudal fin Caudal fin asymmetrical Homocercal tail Caudal fin symmetrical

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Fishes reptiles and amphibians

Fishes, Reptiles, and Amphibians

ENVIRON 311/EEB 320

Winter 2007


Fishes

Fishes

Lepisosteus osseus: Longnose gar


Fish anatomy

Fish Anatomy


Fish anatomy1

Fish Anatomy

  • Heterocercal tail

    • Bony supports extend through top of caudal fin

    • Caudal fin asymmetrical

  • Homocercal tail

    • Caudal fin symmetrical

    • No extension of spine through top of caudal fin


Family petromyzontidae

Family Petromyzontidae

  • Lampreys

  • Lack jaws, as well as paired fins, scales, and gill covers

  • Body is elongate

  • Has unique larval stage, called the ammocoete stage

    • These lack fully functional eyes and mouthparts; feed on detritus and drift

  • Adults may be parasites, predators or non-feeders

    • Parasitic kinds use teeth on sucking disk to rasp feeding holes in fish


Fishes reptiles and amphibians

Then…

Add some jaws, paired fins, and opercula (gill covers)…


Family lepisosteidae

Family Lepisosteidae

  • Gars

  • Long, thin body with heterocercal tail

  • Ganoid scales are armorlike

  • Long, fixed jaws and sharp teeth

  • Can breathe air directly

  • Usually an ambush predator

  • Prefers large bodies of water, esp. where weedy areas exist


Family amiidae

Family Amiidae

  • Bowfin or Dogfish

  • Another very primitive fish with a hetero-cercal tail and the ability to breathe air

  • However, upper jaw (maxilla) is now more mobile

  • Often confused w/ snakehead, an invasive species

    • Bowfin has a shorter anal fin, heterocercal tail, and a gular plate (hard plate on throat)

  • A large, powerful ambush predator—occupies mainly weedy spots


Family amiidae1

Family Amiidae


Fishes reptiles and amphibians

Now…

Turn the primitive heterocercal tail into a homocercal tail and…


Family salmonidae

Family Salmonidae

  • Trout, Salmon, and Ciscoes

  • Single soft dorsal fin with fleshy adipose fin and small scales

  • Medium to large freshwater fishes—very important to sport and commercial anglers

  • High O2 demand—needs cold water (e.g. ground-water streams and deep oligotrophic lakes)

  • Most are predatory, first on invertebrates and then on other fish

  • Some are migratory


Family umbridae

Family Umbridae

  • Mudminnows

  • Soft dorsal fin placed far back on body

  • Rounded caudal fin

  • Small, hardy fish with ability to survive under low DO; found in a wide variety of habitats

  • Preys mainly on invertebrates

  • Very closely related to pikes, which it resembles


Family esocidae

Family Esocidae

  • Pikes and pickerels

  • Soft dorsal fin place far back on body, roughly even with anal fin

  • Caudal fin is slightly forked

  • Snout is duck-billed in appearance

  • Voracious ambush predators of streams, lakes, and many wetlands

    • Feed primarily on other fish, including their own kind


Family cyprinidae

Family Cyprinidae

  • Minnows

  • Simple looking with single soft dorsal fin

  • Mouth ranges from subterminal to upturned

  • Usually without complex patterning but occasionally colorful

  • Very large and diverse family

  • Includes shiners, carps, and goldfish (the latter two are invasive exotics)

  • Wide variety of feeding strategies—some are filter feeders, others predators


Asian carp getting closer

Asian Carp…getting closer

  • bighead and silver

  • imported by catfish farmers to remove algae and suspended matter out of their ponds

  • Jump out of water and can injure boaters

  • Separated from Lake MI by an electric barrier

www.epa.gov


Family catostomidae

Family Catostomidae

  • Suckers and redhorses

  • Look like cyprinids but have ventral mouth (suckerlike) with thick lips

  • Redhorses may be colorful and grow quite large

  • Benthic—sift through sediments for invertebrates and sometimes algae


Family ictaluridae

Family Ictaluridae

  • Catfishes

  • Barbels, adipose fin and single spines in both the pectoral and dorsal fin characterize family

  • Are without scales

  • Many are benthic

  • Size ranges from tiny to enormous

  • Extra taste buds on body allow catfish to locate food where light levels are low


Fishes reptiles and amphibians

Then…

  • Add spines to dorsal and anal fin

  • Bring the pelvic fins closer to the pectoral fins


Family percidae

Family Percidae

  • Perches, darters, and walleyes

  • Two dorsal fins: one spiny and one soft

  • Anal fin with 1-2 spines

  • Opercular spines

  • Darters are generally small and are primarily benthic

  • Others are good swimmers, voracious predators (first of inverts, then fish) and medium-sized


Family centrarchidae

Family Centrarchidae

  • Sunfishes and tropical basses

  • Two dorsal fins, usually connected

  • Anal fin with 3 or more spines

  • Includes many sport fishes

  • Small to medium predators of inverts and other fish


Family cottidae

Family Cottidae

  • Sculpins

  • Two dorsal fins

  • Tend to be dorso-ventrally flattened, with large head and dorsal eyes

  • Possess pre-opercular spines

  • Prefer cool to cold water—often associated with (and eaten by) trout

  • Prey mainly on inverts


Family gasterosteidae

Family Gasterosteidae

  • Sticklebacks

  • Easily identified by spiny “finlets” on first dorsal fin

  • Caudal peduncle extremely thin

  • No scales

  • Found mainly in quieter waters—consume invertebrates


Reptiles and amphibians

Reptiles and Amphibians


Class amphibia

Class Amphibia

  • Amphibians

  • Name implies two life stages: larval and adult

  • Many live in or near water for much of their life cycle

  • Respiration may be accomplished through lungs, gills or simple diffusion through the skin, depending on species and life stage

  • Skin is generally moist, not covered with scales

  • Generally sensitive to human impacts on water quality


Order caudata

Order Caudata

  • Salamanders

  • Two to four legs and a long tail—no claws

  • Two-thirds of world’s species live in Americas

  • Some species retain larval characteristics throughout life (e.g. external gills)

  • Some species estivate during periods of drought,


Order anura

Order Anura

  • Frogs and Toads

  • Most have a familiar tadpole larval stage that develops in water

    • Larval stage may last anywhere from a few weeks to a couple of years

    • Feeds on algae, detritus, inverts

  • Adult stage has four legs and is typically terrestrial or semi-aquatic

    • Feeds mainly on invertebrates

    • Some may eat other frogs or snakes


Family bufonidae bufo americanus

Family BufonidaeBufo americanus

  • American toad

  • Warty skin and short legs for hopping (characteristic of toads)

  • Adult occupies all kinds of terrestrial habitats, returns to water (often ephemeral) to breed

  • Tadpole is dark, has rounded tail with little pigment around the edges


Family hylidae

Family Hylidae

  • Treefrogs

  • Slender, long limbs and digits

  • Usually small

  • May be somewhat arboreal


Family hylidae hyla versicolor chrysocelis

Family HylidaeHyla versicolor/chrysocelis

  • Gray treefrog

  • Has adhesive pads on long toes, adapted to climbing

  • Adults warty with bright coloration under legs

  • Usually stay close to swampy areas

  • Tadpoles strongly patterned—may also be tinged with color


Family hylidae pseudacris crucifer

Family HylidaePseudacris crucifer

  • Spring peeper

  • Very tiny—more likely to be heard than seen

    • If seen, can be identified by ‘x’ on back

  • Adults are somewhat arboreal, preferring swampy areas

  • Tadpoles tiny, with lightly mottled tails


Family ranidae

Family Ranidae

  • True frogs

  • Skin fairly smooth with well-developed legs for leaping

  • Front toes lack adhesive pads and webbing; rear toes are webbed


Family ranidae rana catesbeiana

Family RanidaeRana catesbeiana

  • Bullfrog

  • Adults are large, with no dorsolateral ridges and usually little patterning on body

  • Voice is deep croak

  • Spend much of life in or very close to water

  • Tadpoles are large; may take two seasons to mature


Family ranidae rana pipiens

Family RanidaeRana pipiens

  • Leopard frog

  • Adult has dorsolateral ridges and dark, round spots on back

  • Voice is snore-like

  • Found in wide variety of wetlands; sometimes wanders into dry meadows

  • Tadpole mottled throughout


Family ranidae rana sylvatica

Family RanidaeRana sylvatica

  • Wood frog

  • Adult easily identified by dark mask across face

  • Voice sounds like clucking

  • Prefers wooded bottomlands

  • Usually breeds early; sometimes before ice is off of lakes

  • Tadpole develops quickly; has high, relatively unmarked dorsal fin


Class reptilia

Class Reptilia

  • Reptiles

  • Have scales (few exceptions) and clawed toes (if they have toes)

  • Young resemble adults


Order squamata suborder serpentes

Order SquamataSuborder Serpentes

  • Family Colubridae: Water snakes

  • Nerodia sipedon sipedon, the northern water snake is only member in MI

  • Is not venomous, but is persecuted by many because of this perception

  • Common in/near rivers, swamps, bogs, etc.


Order testudines

Order Testudines

  • Turtles

  • Characterized by carapace and four clawed legs

  • Underbelly called plastron—may be variously jointed

  • Some are exclusively aquatic—others are terrestrial


Family chelydridae chelydra serpentina

Family ChelydridaeChelydra serpentina

  • Snapping turtle

  • Large, heavily armored turtle

  • Three-keeled carapace

  • Spends much of time submerged—rarely basks

  • In water, eats almost anything

  • Out of water, will try to bite almost anything, even cars


Family emydidae graptemys geographica

Family EmydidaeGraptemys geographica

  • Map turtle

  • Single keel on carapace

  • Yellow spot behind eye

  • “Map” pattern on dorsum

  • Prefers large bodies of water

  • Good swimmer—will eat fish—but also likes to bask on logs


Family emydidae chrysemys picta marginata

Family EmydidaeChrysemys picta marginata

  • Midland painted turtle

  • Carapace shallow keel (in females)

  • Marked with reds and oranges on sides and plastron

  • Prefers shallow, weedy spots

  • Omnivorous


Family trionychidae apolone spinifera spinifera

Family TrionychidaeApolone spinifera spinifera

  • Eastern spiny softshell

  • Carapace is soft and pliable—has chocolate-chip pattern

  • Head is small with long snout for snorkeling

  • Mainly a turtle of large rivers

    • Spends lots of time swimming

    • Sometimes basks on logs or rocks, but always where water is close by

  • Largely predatory on fish and inverts


The end

The End


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