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Haiti. 1492-1934. SLOS. Student Learning Outcomes:      Use knowledge of global events and trends since 1500 to shed light on contemporary issues Instructional Objectives Describe interactions and influences between civilizations and non-urban societies

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Haiti

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Haiti

1492-1934


SLOS

Student Learning Outcomes:

  •      Use knowledge of global events and trends since 1500 to shed light on contemporary issues

    Instructional Objectives

  • Describe interactions and influences between civilizations and non-urban societies

  • Analyze cause-and-effect relationships in history, including variables such as the “great person”, technological change, outside influences and demographic change


  • Historically, West Africa is associated with the slave, gold and ivory trades

  • West Africa is also the place of origin of voodoo, the only indigenous African religion to survive the trans-Atlantic slave trade and remain in practice in the Americas today.


  • Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, English and French slave traders worked with the Dahomey and Ashanti (located in what is now Benin and Ghana), where slave ports at Ouidah and Elmina flourished,

  • They accumulated enormous wealth and power as a result of the trade of their fellow Africans.

  • The Caribbean is a significant place in the triangular trade


  • The Caribbean is the epicenter of world Rum production. Virtually every major island group produces its own distinct Rum style.

  • Rum is a historical legacy of the colonial period


Haiti

  • December 5, 1492: Columbus discovers Haiti (the island of Hispaniola)

  • 1697: The Spaniards cede the western third of Hispaniola to the French crown at the Treaty of Ryswick.

  • Haiti is now called "Saint Domingue"


tortuga


Tortuga Small island off Haiti

  • In 1640 the buccaneers of Tortuga began calling themselves the Brethren of the Coast.

  • The population of pirates and privateers on Tortuga consisted of a mix of most Europeans, but the largest parts were French and English.

  • The French governor imported several hundred prostitutes round 1650 to curb homosexual unions known as matelotage


Captain Morgan


  • In 1666 Henry Morgan arrives on Tortuga and goes on to become one of the most famous “Pirates of the Caribbean”

  • Henry Morgan leads 500 Tortuga buccaneers and 1000 Jamaica buccaneers in 1670 and attacks/ plunders Santa Marta, Rio de la Hacha, Puerto Bello and Panama.

  • In 1684 the Treaty of Ratisbone, between France and Spain, was signed which suppressed the actions of the buccaneers

  • 1688, Henry Morgan dies in Jamaica.


Back to Haiti


  • 1697-1791: Saint Domingue becomes the richest colony in the world based on slaves, sugar cane and rum for the triangle trade.

  • The capital, Cap Français, is known as the Paris of the New World.

  • A regime of extraordinary cruelty; the 500,000 slaves taken by the French are flogged, starved, and buried alive for minor offenses.

  • The Sugar Cane Plantations were brutal and most slaves died. Owners believed cheaper to import rather than provide basic support based on rum production needs.


  • August 1791: the first major black rebellion takes place, initiated by Boukman, a voodoo houngan.

  • This begins the markings of civil war between the African dominated north and the mulatto (mixed) dominated south.


  • 1796: Toussaint L'Ouverture, an educated herb doctor and military man, emerges as the leader of the former slaves in the north.

  • He restored order, ended the massacres, and restored some of Saint Domingue's former prosperity.


  • 1801: Napoleon Bonaparte sends an army of 34,000 break the slave armies and retake the colony for France; this mission was unsuccessful.

  • The leader of the army Leclerc ultimately had Toussaint L'Ouverture seized and deported to France. He died within a year.


  • May 1802: Convention in Paris reintroduces slavery, which brings on more rebellions and massacres.


  • January 1804: Jean Jacques Dessalines proclaimed the independent black Republic of Haiti in the northern half of the island.

  • Dessalines was unpopular with the mulattos and was assassinated in 1806. His death led to civil war again between the south (under General Petion) and the north (under Henry Christophe).


  • 1843 to 1915: Haiti sees 22 heads of state, most of whom leave office by violent means. Rivalry continues among the whites, the mulatto elite, and the blacks.


  • 1820: Henry Christophe a tyrannical ruler who crowned himself "king", and built a palace and citadel (at Cap Haitien in the north) at great cost to Haitian lives commits suicide.

  • At his death Haiti was taken over by General Boyer, and civil war ceased. Boyer obtained official Haitian independence from France at the price of 150 million French francs.


  • 1915: President Guillaume Sam is dismembered and the Americans invade the country and remain for 19 years. The Haitian population rejects American leadership

  • 1934: The Americans leave Haiti, which is began to prosper once again.


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