European Defence Procurement Integration:
Download
1 / 22

European Defence Procurement Integration: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 560 Views
  • Updated On :

European Defence Procurement Integration: How to Handle Article 296 EC Cicero Foundation December 2005- Paris. Dr. ARIS GEORGOPOULOS University of Dundee, United Kingdom. Public Procurement in the Defence Sector: Competition Despite Article 296 EC?. OUTLINE Background Information

Related searches for European Defence Procurement Integration:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'European Defence Procurement Integration: ' - EllenMixel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

European Defence Procurement Integration: How to Handle Article 296 ECCicero FoundationDecember 2005- Paris

Dr. ARIS GEORGOPOULOS

University of Dundee, United Kingdom


Public procurement in the defence sector competition despite article 296 ec l.jpg

Public Procurement in the Defence Sector: Competition Despite Article 296 EC?

OUTLINE

Background Information

Current Initiatives

Examination of Article 296 EC


Background information l.jpg

Background Information Despite Article 296 EC?

What is the definition of Defence Procurement?

Lato Sensu Defence Procurement= The acquisition by the authorities in the defence sector of the various kinds of goods and services they need for performing their duties

i.e. paperclips, furniture, cleaning services, tanks, submarines, Aircraft etc.

Stricto Sensu Defence Procurement = The acquisition of Armaments

i.e. materials intended only for military purposes (also known as war-like materials, “hard defence” materials)


Background information4 l.jpg

Background Information Despite Article 296 EC?

Dual-use goods = Products used for both military and non-military purposes

i.e. military ambulances, motorcycles, IT etc.

Dual use goods do not fall within the strict definition of Defence Procurement


Background information5 l.jpg

Background Information Despite Article 296 EC?

Some Figures:

Aggregate spending on defence equipment among the EU 15 in 1999, 2000 and 2001 = approximately $ 92 billion

EU aggregate Defence Expenditure less than half of the US

Due to market fragmentation EU Member States should increase their expenditure to a level higher of that of the US (at least 10%) in order to achieve comparable results with the US


Background information6 l.jpg

Background Information Despite Article 296 EC?

Why is there fragmentation in the European defence market?

Defence Market  Market of the tools of sovereignty

Article 296 EC allows MSs to derogate from the EC Treaty provisions in the field of armaments production and trade

This is mirrored in the current Public Procurement Directives [Articles 3 Supplies Directive, Article 4 (1) Services Directive]

AND

the New Public Procurement Directive [Article 10, see also Annexes IV and XII as well as the explanatory Memorandum]


Background information7 l.jpg

Background Information Despite Article 296 EC?

Main manifestations of protectionism in national defence procurement:

Restriction of market access

Requirement for industrial compensations-offsets (either as a condition for participation of foreign companies or as award criterion)


Background information8 l.jpg

Background Information Despite Article 296 EC?

Need for more competition in defence procurement?

Economic imperatives :

Need for increasing the competitiveness of European Defence firms

Need for rational use of the limited resources allocated to defence and avoidance of duplication


Background information9 l.jpg

Background Information Despite Article 296 EC?

Need for more competition in defence procurement?

Political/strategic imperatives:

Support of the credibility of the ESDP by a healthy European defence industrial base


Current initiatives l.jpg

Current Initiatives Despite Article 296 EC?

Council  Establishment of the European Defence Agency (EDA) (2004)

Intergovernmental character (participation of the Commission in the Steering board without voting rights)

active in the area of collaborative projects in armaments and military Research and Technology


Current initiatives11 l.jpg

Current Initiatives Despite Article 296 EC?

Commission  Green Paper on Defence procurement (2004)

Some of the Questions posed by the Green Paper?

Is the existing public procurement regime suitable for armaments acquisitions?

Would it be better to introduce a Defence Procurement Directive?

How should Article 296 EC (ex Article 223) be construed?


Examination of article 296 ec l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Some clarifications…

Is the abolition of Article 296 EC a necessary condition for the attainment of competition in defence procurement?

Short answer:

NO


Examination of article 296 ec13 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Article 296 EC establishes a right not an obligation.

No legal requirement for coordinated action or reciprocity

Example: Belgium and …UK

Thus the real issue is the political will of the Member States.


Examination of article 296 ec14 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Is competition in the defence sector possible without the support of the Member States? Through a narrow interpretation of Article 296 EC perhaps?


Examination of article 296 ec15 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Commission’s position :

Article 296 EC is subject to a proportionality test similar to other Treaty exemptions (Article 30 EC etc)

(Some) Member States’ position:

Article 296 introduces an automatic en bloc exemption.


Examination of article 296 ec16 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Article 296 (1b) EC:

Any Member State may take such measures as it considers necessary for the protection of the essential interests of its security ….. the production of or trade in arms, munitions and war material: such measures shall notadversely affectthe conditions of competition in the common market regarding products which are not intended for specifically military purposes


Examination of article 296 ec17 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Observations:

Wording and ratio legis of Article 296 EC  wide discretion

However NOT automatic exemption

The use of Article 296 is subject to the scrutiny of ECJ but the intensity of the latter is considerably lower


Examination of article 296 ec18 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Not a classic proportionality test

Instead….

Test of manifest unsuitability

In a nutshell:

Is the Emperor naked? (As opposed to “Is the Emperor dressed properly”)


Examination of article 296 ec19 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

Examples of manifestly unsuitable national measures for achieving essential security objectives:

Indirect offsets (i.e. indu strial compensations not related to defence)

VAT exemption on Defence equipment imports


Examination of article 296 ec20 l.jpg

Examination of Article 296 EC Despite Article 296 EC?

The position of the European Court of Justice (so far):

Case 186/01Alexander Dory

C-252/01Commission v. Belgium

C-414/97 Commission v. Spain


Conclusions l.jpg

Conclusions Despite Article 296 EC?

Competition in Defence cannot be forced on Member States through the “tranquiliser” of an ECJ restrictive interpretation of Article 296 EC

Member States seem to realise the responsibility linked with the wide discretion

 Non legally binding Agreement /Code of conduct on defence procurement November 2005


Thank you l.jpg

Thank You Despite Article 296 EC?

Dr Aris GEORGOPOULOS

Lecturer in European Law

University of Dundee

School of Law

Dundee DD1 4HN

Scotland

United Kingdom

Email: [email protected]

Tel: +44 (0) 1382 344636

Fax: +44 (0) 1382 226905


ad