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Community Lead Natural Resource Management and Conservation in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region Processes, Impacts and Lessons Learned

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Community Lead Natural Resource Management and Conservation in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region Processes, Impacts and Lessons Learned. Project “Conservation and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources” Gobi Component. Objective. Project Region.

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slide1

Community Lead Natural Resource Management and Conservation in Mongolia’s Southern Gobi Region

Processes, Impacts and Lessons Learned

slide2

Project “Conservation and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources”

Gobi Component

Objective

Project Region

To enable local communities to use and conserve natural resources sustainably - in close cooperation with government agencies and the private sector

Implemented by

Funded by

New Zealand Nature Institute Initiative for People Centered Conservation

German Technical Assistance

slide3

Natural Resources and Conservation Values

ecological, natural history and cultural, human history

slide4

Gobi Gurvan Saikhan

-The Three Beauties of the Gobi-

National Park

Wildlife (Argali, Ibex, Snow Leopard)

Endemic Plants

Paleontological Sites

Desert and Semi-Desert Ecosystem

slide5

Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park

Cultural Landscape Cultural and Spiritual Values Prehistoric and Historic Sites

Livestock Genetic Resources

Traditional Resource Management Systems

slide6

Strategy

  • Facilitating Community Organization and Stakeholder Consensus on sustainable, collaborative management of NR
  • Strengthening local institutions and collaboration
  • Developing enabling policy framework

Approach

Participatory

People centered

Process oriented

slide7

Recognizing

Local/traditional knowledge and resource management systems

Potential contribution of nomadic livestock herders to conservation

Local communities as rightsholders to resources

Need for new concepts of Protected Area Management

slide8

Participatory Learning and Actionfor Project Design, Implementation and Evaluation

  • Facilitating analysis of problems and opportunities
  • Understanding local livelihoods and local peoples’ perceptions
  • Facilitating community initiatives, mobilizing local potential
slide9

Facilitating Analysis of:

Natural Resources – uses and trends

Socio Economy – livelihood analysis

Institutions and Conflicts

Problems and Opportunities

slide10

Participatory Analysis - Findings

Lack of coordination and weak (government) institutions for sustainable resource use, and of effective conservation

slide11

Perceived lack of community institutions for resource management and coordinating herders movements

Self-Help to improve NRM and Livelihoods

slide12

Challenges

Increase in herding households and livestock in 1990s

Massive losses of livestock and livelihoods in early 2000s

  • Private herds on state owned, collectively used land
  • Young Institutions for Resource and Park Management
slide13

Challenges

  • Mongolia’s grasslands (and Protected Areas) are a vast
  • territory to manage
  • Spatial and temporal variability of non-equilibrium
  • ecosystem requires local and collective management,
  • and mobility
slide14

Community Based and Collaborative Management of Natural Resources in Mongolia

Opportunities

Long history of common property resources and local resource management.

Tribal organization and large tribal herds.

Pasture resource management (of allocated territories) by local herder groups since 13th century.

Traditional knowledge on livestock and grazing management.

slide15

Self-help to improve sustainable Resource Use + Livelihoods

Emergence of Community Organizations

Based on customary institutions and norms, adapting to new socio-economic and political framework

slide16

Strengthening Community Organizations

Success Factors – Lessons Learned by Community Leaders

  • Community has agreed on and established:
  • Leader and Council
  • Objectives and Norms
  • Community Fund and Community Center

Elders support the Initiative

of Younger People

Men are supportive of Women who lead community activities

slide17

Success Factors of Community Leadership

Leaders and Council members :

“Act transparent and accountable”

“Facilitate joint decision making”

“Respect everybody’s opinion”

“Include and support poor households”

“Organize social activities”

Community Organizations learn about

and practice Principles of Good Governance

slide18

Currently, over 70 Community Organizations active in 3 provinces (Aimags)

  • Scaling up through self-organization.
  • Community Organizations in some districts (Sums) established umbrella organizations (associations).
  • Community Organizations are registering as legal entities.
  • Accepted by local government as local institutions for NRM.

“Functional Participation”

slide19

Impacts ofCommunity Organization

Environmental

Economic

Social

slide20

The Economic and Environmental Impacts

of Community Organization and Collective Actionas perceived by local communities

“Living standard of families has improved”

“Jobs were created for unemployed women”

“Pasture land is used properly”

“Use of trees and bushes as fuel wood has decreased”

“Illegal taking of falcons has decreased”

slide21

The Social Impacts

of Community Organization and Collective Actionas perceived by local communities

“Other organizations are interested to cooperate with us”

“Equality (of rural women) with men and city women has increased”

“Education of community members has improved”

“It became easier to receive health service”

“Communities can influence the government”

slide22

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

Community-defined Indicators to measure Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts

Planning Tool for Community Activities

slide23

Community Managed Area

Contracting with local government

Resource rightsand management responsibility to Community Organization

Commitment to alternative fuel/dungstoves, and to protection of bushes

Community rangers

Community Pasture Management Norms

slide24

Community Pasture Management Norms

  • Rotational grazing
  • Agreements on moving dates
  • Reserving winter pastures
  • Educating, and negotiating with
  • outsiders
  • Mutual support in preparing winter
  • camps and in risk management
slide25

Local Appropriate TechnologyDevelopment to save Fuel Wood

Fuel efficient dung stoves

Solar energy

Briquettes and presses

slide26

Peoples’ Strategies for Sustainable Livelihoods

Collective Action

Value Addition

Income Diversification

Credits to Households from Community Funds

slide27

Changes in regulatory and institutional framework - introduced or under discussion

  • Recognition of Community Organizations as NRM institutions
  • Contracting with Community Organizations to transfer land/resource rights
  • Tax incentives for collective action on sustainable NRM and conservation
  • Create position of “Community Organizer”in local government ?
  • Introduction of new Protected Area category “Community Conserved Area” ?
slide28

Lessons Learned

Community organization has triggered better governance

through experiential learning about good governance

while building strong community organizations

Communities have a voice and are recognized partners

slide29

Lessons Learned

The poorest households have driven development of strong community organizations

The poorest communities contributed most to resource conservation and restoration

slide30

Lessons Learned

Women have taken a leading role in organization and facilitation

slide31

Support Strategy

Developing Human and Institutional Capacity

Skills for Value Addition and Income Diversification

Facilitation and Management Skills

Organizational Development

slide32

Support Strategy

Facilitating Experience Sharing and Community Exchanges

Building linkages - locally, nationally, internationally

slide33

Thank you for your attention

New Zealand Nature Institute Initiative for People Centered Conservation

Tungalag, Mongolia

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