Developing water system technical capacity
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The importance of source water and infrastructure adequacy to technical capacity ... Water system capacity is the ability to plan for, achieve, and maintain ...

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Developing water system technical capacity

Developing Water System Technical Capacity


Workshop objectives

Workshop Objectives

  • An overview of technical capacity

  • The methods for assessing technical capacity

  • The importance of source water and infrastructure adequacy to technical capacity

  • The benefits of assessing and maintaining technical capacity


Fundamental goals of capacity development

Fundamental Goals of Capacity Development

  • To ensure consistent compliance with drinking water standards

  • To enhance water system performance

  • To promote continuous improvement


What is capacity

What is Capacity?

  • Water system capacity is the ability to plan for, achieve, and maintain compliance with applicable drinking water standards

  • For a water system to have “capacity” it must have adequate capability in three areas: technical, managerial, and financial


Capacity elements

Capacity Elements

  • Each capacity element – technical, managerial, and financial – is necessary but not sufficient

  • Many aspects of system operation involve more than one capacity element

  • Each element is important to ensure the protection of public health and meet the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)


Development technical capacity ppt

Managerial support

Technical

Managerial

Planning inputs

$$$

$$$

Planning inputs

Managerial support

Financial


Exercise

Exercise

  • How would you define “technical capacity”?

  • What are the key characteristics of a system that has adequate technical capacity?

  • What are the key characteristics of a system that lacks adequate technical capacity?


Technical capacity

Technical Capacity

  • The physical and operational ability of a water system to meet SDWA requirements, including the adequacy of physical infrastructure and the technical knowledge and capability of personnel


Elements of technical capacity

Elements of Technical Capacity

  • Source water adequacy: quality and quantity

  • Infrastructure adequacy

  • System operations


Elements of technical capacity continued

Elements of Technical Capacity (continued)

  • Understand monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements

  • Ability to identify and prioritize limiting issues

  • Ability to obtain assistance and resolve limiting issues


Technical capacity1

Technical Capacity

  • The GOALS are to:

    • Identify system components or operating issues that are limiting the ability to consistently provide adequate water, both in quantity and quality

    • Develop a plan

    • Resolve limiting issues


Development technical capacity ppt

Source

Treatment

Distribution

Storage

Technical

Pumps

Monitoring & reporting

Management & operations

Operator certification


Source water adequacy

Source Water Adequacy

  • Does the system have a reliable source of drinking water?

  • Is the source of generally good quality and adequately protected?

  • Is the source adequate to meet future needs?


Source adequacy quantity

Source Adequacy:Quantity

  • Can the system reliably deliver an adequate quantity from its sources)

    • Demand, production capacity, average and maximum daily production

    • Ability to meet future demand or need to identify alternative sources

    • Metering

    • Water use records

    • Contingency plan and redundant sources

    • Water rights


Source adequacy quality

Source Adequacy: Quality

  • Is the source of generally good quality?

    • Proximity to contamination sources

    • Monitoring and evaluating raw water quality

    • Treatment needed

    • Alternative sources


Source adequacy quality1

Source Adequacy: Quality

  • Does the system have a wellhead protection or source water protection plan?

    • Protect your source to minimize contamination and treatment

    • Proactive approach

    • Key is the ability to control land use in vicinity of the source where possible and to remain aware of potential land use issues


Source adequacy quality2

Source Adequacy: Quality

  • Source Water Assessment and Protection: Ground Water

    • Well location, construction

    • Classified as ground water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI)

    • Define recharge area

    • Identify sources of contamination within recharge area (agriculture, drainfields)

    • Emergency spill response plan

    • Awareness of land use issues and control of land use activities (where possible)


Source adequacy quality3

Source Adequacy: Quality

  • Source Water Assessment and Protection: Ground Water

    • Define area of contribution – e.g., watershed

    • Identify sources of contamination

      • Point and non-point sources

    • Reservoir treatment

    • Intake protection

    • Emergency spill response plan

    • Ability to control land use activities


Source adequacy quality4

Source Adequacy: Quality

  • Other sources

    • Springs

    • Roof catchments

  • Transmission from source to treatment facility

    • Distance between source and treatment may be extensive (miles of pipe or canal)


Development technical capacity ppt

Source Protection

Herbicide


Infrastructure adequacy

Infrastructure Adequacy

  • Can the system provide water that meets SDWA standards and satisfies customers?

  • What is the condition of its infrastructure, from source of supply to distribution?

  • What is the infrastructure’s life expectancy?

  • Does the system have a capital improvement plan?


Infrastructure adequacy1

Infrastructure Adequacy

  • Can the system provide water that meets SDWA standards and satisfies customers?

    • Evaluate all system components for proper operation to maintain adequate water quality and quantity

    • Identify what components must be repaired, replaced or upgraded based on life expectancy and future needs

    • Develop a capital improvement plan


Infrastructure adequacy2

Infrastructure Adequacy

  • Can the system provide water that meets SDWA standards and satisfies customers?

    • Want to avoid:

      • Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), treatment technique violation, detect of a contaminant can create a reaction-infrastructure repair or replacement

      • Customer complaints (taste, odor, low pressure) – also cause a reaction – infrastructure repair or replacement


Infrastructure adequacy3

Infrastructure Adequacy

  • Assess all system components for proper operation, life expectancy, and ability to meet current and future needs

    • The goal is to identify which components and equipment must be repaired, replaced, or improved through strategic planning

    • Through an asset inventory, develop a capital improvement plan


Infrastructure adequacy4

Infrastructure Adequacy

  • Evaluate all system components and equipment

    • Sources, intakes, transmission mains (already discussed)

    • Treatment

    • Storage

    • Pumps

    • Distribution system


Infrastructure adequacy treatment

Infrastructure Adequacy:Treatment

  • Treatment systems

    • Disinfection/hypochlorination

    • Filtration

    • Corrosion control

    • Iron and manganese removal

    • Organics removal

    • Water softening

    • Other


Infrastructure adequacy treatment1

Infrastructure Adequacy:Treatment

  • Must be aware of future rules with regard to treatment

  • Treatment proposed to address today’s problem may not be adequate for future regulations

  • Provide flexibility in treatment plant


Infrastructure adequacy treatment2

Infrastructure Adequacy:Treatment

  • Assess age and condition of treatment components

    • Chemical feed equipment

    • Treatment processes

    • Disinfection processes

    • Telemetry/SCADA

  • Identify components in need of replacement, repair, or upgrade


Infrastructure adequacy storage

Infrastructure Adequacy:Storage

  • Storage

    • Adequate volume and pressure

    • Adequate capacity for peak flow

    • Covers and screens

    • Tanks professionally inspected every three to five years or more frequently


Infrastructure adequacy storage1

Infrastructure Adequacy:Storage

  • Storage tanks are not maintenance-free

  • Need to routinely (monthly) check hatch; look inside with mirror and flashlight; and check screens on vents, overflows, drains

  • Tanks can be a source of microbial contaminants (birds, rodents)


Infrastructure adequacy storage2

Infrastructure Adequacy:Storage

  • Assess age and condition of storage facilities

  • Identify necessary repairs based on inspections (new liner)

  • Assess need for additional storage for future growth; storage tanks may allow system expansion without developing new sources (cost/benefit)


Infrastructure adequacy pumps

Infrastructure Adequacy:Pumps

  • Adequate security

  • Protection from flooding

  • Heating, ventilation, lighting, drainage

  • All units operable

  • Auxiliary power

  • Adequately sized

  • Maintenance and pumping records kept

  • Telemetry


Infrastructure adequacy distribution

Infrastructure Adequacy:Distribution

  • Material standards

  • Maps, as-built drawings, master plan

  • Distribution system monitoring

  • Flushing and hydrant testing

  • Leak detection program

  • Cross-connection control program

  • Meters

  • Valves

  • Complaints from customers about low pressure, inadequate water, aesthetics


Infrastructure adequacy5

Infrastructure Adequacy

  • Develop an asset inventory

    • After assessing all system components, identify those in need of repair and replacement in an asset inventory

    • Consider what components must be upgraded to meet demands

  • Ensure strategic planning

    • Consider what future regulations will affect the system and how (flexibility is key)

    • Develop capital improvement plan


Exercise1

Exercise

  • How does a system’s infrastructure adequacy affect technical capacity?

  • How can a system ensure that its infrastructure is adequate?


System operations

System Operations

  • Is the system’s operator certified?

  • Do adequate resources exist to maintain safe and consistent operation of the system?


System operations1

System Operations

  • Does the system have an effective operation and maintenance program?

  • What training is available for operators, board members, council members, managers, owners?


System operations2

System Operations

  • Is the operator certified and current?

    • All CWSs and NTNCWSs are required to have a certified operator; some States also require TNCWSs to have a certified operator

    • Operator should be current with certification

    • Operator should be properly trained

    • Training can be obtained through the State or other agencies approved by the State


System operations3

System Operations

  • Adequate resources to maintain safe and consistent operation of system

    • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

    • As-builts

    • Operation & Maintenance (O&M) manuals- available and current

    • Adequate records on maintenance, repairs, water use, power use, chemical use

    • Other programs to consider – Vulnerability Assessment, Safety Program, Emergency Response Plan, Cross Connection Control Program


System operations4

System Operations

  • Standard operating procedures

    • Key to consistent operation and quality

    • Simple

      • Check pumps daily, record water use

    • Complex (surface water plant)

      • Chemicals use based on turbidity levels or streaming current data


System operations5

System Operations

  • Other programs to consider

    • Vulnerability assessments

    • Safety program

    • Emergency response plan

    • Cross connection control program

    • Leak detection program

    • Flushing schedule

    • Security

  • How often are programs or plans reviewed and updated?


System operations6

System Operations

  • Vulnerability assessments

  • Safety program

    • Chemical storage and handling

    • Confined space entry

  • Emergency response plans

    • Power outage

    • Drought – water rationing/conservation

    • Fire

    • Chemical spill

    • Flood (start-up procedures after a flood)

    • Sabotage and terrorist attack


System operations7

System Operations

  • Is training available for board members, council members, management, and operators?

    • Important for everyone involved with the water system to be knowledgeable of the system components, operation, responsibilities, and requirements

    • Results in better communication and better decisions


Monitoring reporting and recordkeeping

Monitoring, Reporting, and Recordkeeping

  • Has an approved sampling plan been established?

  • Is a certified laboratory used?

  • Is a monitoring schedule available?

  • When and how is information reported to the State?

  • What records must be kept by the system?


Monitoring reporting recordkeeping

Monitoring, Reporting, Recordkeeping

  • Monitoring requirements

    • Monitoring schedule available?

    • Sampling plan available?

  • Are samples being analyzed by a certified laboratory?

    • Not all labs certified for all contaminants

  • How is information submitted to the State?

    • Do labs send monitoring results to the State or is this the system’s responsibility?


Monitoring reporting recordkeeping1

Monitoring, Reporting, Recordkeeping

  • How are monitoring records kept and maintained?

    • Electronically, hard copy (big issue for surface water systems)

    • Operator or other system personnel keep records

  • What information must be kept by the system?

    • Some rules require system to retain records for State review during site visits


Monitoring reporting recordkeeping2

Monitoring, Reporting, Recordkeeping

  • What other records should be kept?

    • Maintenance and repair records

    • Water use records

    • Chemical use records

    • Letters from the State

  • Records are important!

    • Consumer Confidence Rule

    • Public notification

    • Inform management and public


Exercise2

Exercise

  • What elements of a system’s operations contribute to its technical capacity?

  • How are monitoring, reporting, and record keeping related to technical capacity?


Identify and prioritize limiting issues

Identify and Prioritize Limiting Issues

  • How can limiting issues be identified?

  • What issues require immediate attention?

  • Ability to plan for the future

    • Future growth

    • Future rules


Identify and prioritize limiting issues1

Identify and Prioritize Limiting Issues

  • Methods to identify issues

    • Sanitary surveys or other State site visits

    • Letter from the State – MCL or treatment technique violation

    • Detect of contaminant (VOC, SOC)

    • Source water assessment

    • Self-assessment


Identify and prioritize limiting issues2

Identify and Prioritize Limiting Issues

  • Sanitary surveys or site visits

    • Effective tool

    • May only happen every 3 to 5 years – need to address issues between site visits

  • Letter from the State

    • MCL or treatment technique violation

    • Want to avoid this situation


Identify and prioritize limiting issues3

Identify and Prioritize Limiting Issues

  • Contaminant detection

    • Monitoring detects a contaminant, but still below MCL

    • Time to address issue

  • Source water assessment

    • Effective tool to identify sources of contamination

    • Can address the issue – reduce vulnerability


Identify and prioritize limiting issues4

Identify and Prioritize Limiting Issues

  • Self-assessment

    • Use tools discussed today

    • Be proactive – don’t wait for the problem to occur

    • Can result in $$$$$ savings – easier to schedule repairs than pay for overtime in an emergency situation


Identify and prioritize limiting issues5

Identify and Prioritize Limiting Issues

  • Methods to prioritize issues

    • Immediate health risk

    • Inability to provide adequate quantity of water

    • Equipment must be replaced immediately

    • Detection of contaminant a concern but not a health risk


Obtain technical assistance and resolve limiting issues

Obtain Technical Assistance and Resolve Limiting Issues

  • State

  • Local American Water Works Association (AWWA), National Rural Water Association (NRWA)

  • Midwest Assistance Program (MAP)/Rural Community Assistance Corporation (RCAC)

  • Training

  • Nearby utility


Obtain assistance and resolve limiting issues

Obtain Assistance and Resolve Limiting Issues

  • Must resolve limiting issues – may be required to act quickly depending on the issue

  • May need to have $$$ in reserve or pursue grants and loans

  • Plan ahead – grant and loan money typically a 2-year process (grant application, election, public notice)


Technical capacity summary

Technical Capacity: Summary

  • To achieve and maintain technical capacity a system should:

    • Identify the system components or operating issues that are limiting the ability to provide adequate water

    • Prioritize issues and develop a long-term strategic plan

    • Obtain assistance (technical and financial)


Exercise self assessment

Exercise: Self-Assessment

  • Completing the self-assessment form can help you assess your system’s technical capacity.


Self assessment form example

Self Assessment Form: Example


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