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Scientific Writing, HRP 214. A. Bob and I were very fond of the piece. B. Bob and me were very fond of the piece. Scientific Writing, HRP 214. A. Bob and I were very fond of the piece. B. Bob and me were very fond of the piece. Scientific Writing, HRP 214. A. That man and I were talking.

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Scientific writing hrp 214
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Bob and I were very fond of the piece.

B. Bob and me were very fond of the piece.


Scientific writing hrp 2141
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Bob and I were very fond of the piece.

B. Bob and me were very fond of the piece.


Scientific writing hrp 2142
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. That man and I were talking.

B. That man and me were talking.


Scientific writing hrp 2143
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. That man and I were talking.

B. That man and me were talking.


Scientific writing hrp 2144
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Their data was intriguing.

B. Their data were intriguing.


Scientific writing hrp 2145
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Their data was intriguing.

B. Their data were intriguing.


Scientific writing hrp 2146
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. She told Bob and me that the end was near.

B. She told Bob and I that the end was near.


Scientific writing hrp 2147
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. She told Bob and me that the end was near.

B. She told Bob and I that the end was near.


Scientific writing hrp 2148
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. I hope that she and I will reconcile.

B. I hope that she and me will reconcile.


Scientific writing hrp 2149
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. I hope that she and I will reconcile.

B. I hope that she and me will reconcile.


Scientific writing hrp 21410
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Between you and I, we should have it done in no time.

B.Between you and me, we should have it done in no time.


Scientific writing hrp 21411
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Between you and I, we should have it done in no time.

B. Between you and me, we should have it done in no time.


Scientific writing hrp 21412
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. He looks like Bill Clinton.

B. He looks as Bill Clinton.


Scientific writing hrp 21413
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. He looks like Bill Clinton.

B. He looks as Bill Clinton.


Scientific writing hrp 21414
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Her dresses weren’t worth very much compared with her shoes.

B. Her dresses weren’t worth very much compared to her shoes.


Scientific writing hrp 21415
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Her dresses weren’t worth very much compared with her shoes.

B.Her dresses weren’t worth very much compared to her shoes.

mnemonic: when things are inherently similar, they are generally grouped with each other

 Your scientific studies will more commonly be seeking distinctions among things previously understood to be similar (than similarities among inherently different things)


Scientific writing hrp 21416
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. To whom did you betray my secret?

B.To who did you betray my secret?


Scientific writing hrp 21417
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. To whom did you betray my secret?

B.To who did you betray my secret?


Scientific writing hrp 21418
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Who owns that mean dog?

B.Whom owns that mean dog?


Scientific writing hrp 21419
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Who owns that mean dog?

B.Whom owns that mean dog?


Scientific writing hrp 21420
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. The person about who you speak is a fool.

B. The person about whom you speak is a fool.


Scientific writing hrp 21421
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. The person about who you speak is a fool.

B. The person about whom you speak is a fool.


Scientific writing hrp 21422
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. People whom live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.

B. People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.


Scientific writing hrp 21423
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. People whom live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.

B. People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.


Scientific writing hrp 21424
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. It’s my head on the line.

B. Its my head on the line.


Scientific writing hrp 21425
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. It’s my head on the line.

B. Its my head on the line.


Scientific writing hrp 21426
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Its head was on the chopping block.

B. It’s head was on the chopping block.


Scientific writing hrp 21427
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Its head was on the chopping block.

B. It’s head was on the chopping block.


Scientific writing hrp 21428
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Virgil is the candidate who we hope to elect.

B. Virgil is the candidate whom we hope to elect.


Scientific writing hrp 21429
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Virgil is the candidate who we hope to elect.

B. Virgil is the candidate whom we hope to elect.


Scientific writing hrp 21430
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Your cigarette tastes good, like a cigarette should.

B. Your cigarette tastes good, as a cigarette should.


Scientific writing hrp 21431
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Your cigarette tastes good, like a cigarette should.

B. Your cigarette tastes good, as a cigarette should.



Scientific writing hrp 21433
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Over 30 disease states can result in the clinical characteristics of dementia.

B. More than 30 disease states can result in the clinical characteristics of dementia.


Scientific writing hrp 21434
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Over 30 disease states can result in the clinical characteristics of dementia.

B. More than 30 disease states can result in the clinical characteristics of dementia.


Scientific writing hrp 21435
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Fewer men are in the class than women.

B. Less men are in the class than women.


Scientific writing hrp 21436
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Fewer men are in the class than women.

B. Less men are in the class than women.


Scientific writing hrp 21437
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Fewer restrictive measures are needed.

B. Less restrictive measures are needed.


Scientific writing hrp 21438
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican whom the San Francisco police charged with breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.

B. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican who the San Francisco police charged with breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.


Scientific writing hrp 21439
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican whom the San Francisco police charged with breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.

B. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican who the San Francisco police charged with breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.


Scientific writing hrp 21440
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Some Notes on Science Style

Following are some general guidelines on preferred style for manuscripts submitted to Science:

  • Avoid jargon; explain obscure terms and define acronyms (keep in mind that many potential readers of your work will not be specialists in your field).

  • Use active voice when suitable, particularly when necessary for correct syntax (e.g., "To address this possibility, we constructed a lZap library . . .," not "To address this possibility, a lZap library was constructed . . .").

  • Write concisely (e.g., "even though," not "in spite of the fact that").


Scientific writing hrp 214 sentence editing warm up
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing warm-up…

Recent research suggests that these two disorders may not be as distinct as previously was thought and the degree of overlap may be considerable.


Scientific writing hrp 214 sentence editing warm up1
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing warm-up…

Possible rewrite…

Recent research suggests that these two disorders may overlap considerably.


Scientific writing hrp 214 sentence editing warm up2
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing warm-up…

The study of Barrett et al. (1997) is considered to be methodologically sound. In that study, 1,000 bacteria were transformed with the novel gene.


Scientific writing hrp 214 sentence editing warm up3
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing warm-up…

Possible rewrites…

In a methodologically sound study by Barret et al. (1997), 1,000 bacteria were transformed with the novel gene. (passive voice)

Using sound methods, Barret et al. (1997), transformed 1,000 bacteria with the novel gene. (active voice)


Scientific writing hrp 214 more warm up
Scientific Writing, HRP 214MORE WARM-UP

  • 1. A progressive decrease in the death rate occurred.

  • The death rate progressively decreased.

    2. These agents exert their action by inhibition of synthesis of cholesterol by the liver.

  • These agents inhibit cholesterol synthesis by the liver.


Scientific writing hrp 214 warm up
Scientific Writing, HRP 214WARM-UP

3. There are many scientists who don’t like to write.

  • Many scientists don’t like to write.

  • In classic epidemiology, the case-control can provide efficiencies when the occurrence of disease in the population is relatively rare.

     In classic epidemiology, the case-control study is efficient for rare diseases.


Scientific writing hrp 21441
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

  • Lecture Three:

    Punctuation, Parallelism, and the Good Sentence.


Scientific writing hrp 21442
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

For those of you reading Sin and Syntax…(from Salon magazine)

  • Rather than a beepOr a rude error message,These words: “File not found.”

  • A crash reducesYour expensive computerTo a simple stone.


Scientific writing hrp 21443
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

  • The code was willing,It considered your request,But the chips were weak.

  • Errors have occurred.We won't tell you where or why.Lazy programmers.


Scientific writing hrp 214 and a few from car talk
Scientific Writing, HRP 214and a few from Car Talk…

  • Four-wheel drive pickupI remember his last words:Hold my beer, watch this!

  • I'm writing Haikugoing 80 miles per hourIs that safe to do?

  • I have an old car.It rattles, coughs and sputters. I smile. No payments.


Scientific writing hrp 214 and a few from car talk1
Scientific Writing, HRP 214and a few from Car Talk…

  • Hilltop. Lake below.My car sinks so slowly. Thank god it's a rental.

  • "Check engine" light on.Unscrew the dash. Stab with pen."Check engine" light off.

  • Just one more exitGas prices will be lowerCheapskate starts walking


Scientific writing hrp 21444
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Lesson One: Our friends the dash, colon, semicolon, and parenthesis…


Scientific writing hrp 21445
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Note: A clause is a unit of grammatical organization next below the sentence in rank. A clause has a subject and a predicate.


Scientific writing hrp 21446
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Increasing power to separate:

Comma

Colon

Dash

Parentheses

Semicolon

Period


Scientific writing hrp 21447
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Increasing formality:

Dash

Parentheses

The Others (Comma,Colon,Semicolon,Period)


Scientific writing hrp 214 semicolon
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Semicolon

Semicolon:

Indicates a pause, typically between two main clauses, that is more pronounced than that indicated by a comma.

Example: Kennedy could be a cold and vain man, and he led a life of privilege. But he knew something about the world; he also cared about it.


Scientific writing hrp 214 parentheses
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Parentheses

Parenthesis (parenthetical expression):

A word, clause, or sentence inserted as an explanation or afterthought into a passage that is grammatically complete without it.

 If you remove the material within the parentheses, the main point of the sentence should not change.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon

Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce a list of items, an explanation, an amplification, or an illustrative quotation.

“The colon has more effect than the comma, less power to separate than the semicolon, and more formality than the dash.”--Strunk and White


Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon list or explanation
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (list or explanation)

“The hydrogen bonds are made as follows: purine position 1 to pyrimidine position 1; purine position 6 to pyrimidine position 6.”

“These pairs are: adenine (purine) with thymine (pyrimidine), and guanine (purine) with cytosine (pyrimidine).”

From: “A structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid”—Watson and Crick 1953


Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon list or explanation1
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (list or explanation)

Washington has a simple solution to most governments it doesn’t like: isolate them, slap sanctions on them, and wait for their downfall.

The woman suffers from lack of experience and a chronic Democratic disease: compound sentences.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon list
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (list)

  • Cross-sectional studies that have measured BMD in formerly anorectic women or elite athletes up to 25 years after diagnosis or cessation of competition have found mixed results, including: normal BMD values for age (5,6,7), moderately reduced BMD (8), and unexpectedly high proportions of osteopenia and osteoporosis (9,10,11).


Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon quote list
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (quote, list)

The “Ask not” line follows right after an exhortation modeled on Franklin Roosevelt’s “rendezvous with destiny”: “In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it.” The note throughout is one of alarm: “The trumpet summons us again”; “the burden of a long twilight struggle”; “that uncertain balance of terror.”



Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon to amplify or interpret
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (to amplify or interpret)

Join two independent clauses with a colon if the second interprets or amplifies the first:

Companies use Marsh for the same reason that home sellers use real-estate agents: the agent’s knowledge and experience is supposed to help the client get the right deal at the right price.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon practice
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon: Practice

Evidence-based medicine teaches clinicians the practical application of clinical epidemiology, as needed to address specific problems of specific patients. It guides clinicians on how to find the best evidence relevant to a specific problem, how to assess the quality of that evidence, and perhaps most difficult, how to decide if the evidence applies to a specific patient.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the colon join and condense
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon: join and condense

Evidence-based medicine teaches clinicians the practical application of clinical epidemiology, including: how to find the best evidence relevant to a specific problem, how to assess the quality of that evidence, and how to decide if the evidence applies to a specific patient.


Scientific writing hrp 214 colon misuse
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Colon misuse

EXAMPLE, what not to do!:

“Two aspects of alcohol use are related to brain injuries: as a factor associated with risk of an injury such as a motor vehicle crash, and as a factor in TBI diagnosis, recovery, or survival after injury.”

“Two aspects of alcohol use are related to brain injuries: its association with risk of injury, such as motor vehicle crash, and its post-injury influences on TBI diagnosis, recovery, or survival after injury.”


Scientific writing hrp 214 colon misuse1
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Colon misuse

EXAMPLE, what not to do!:

“In one project we have a nutritionist, a psychologist, statisticians, a computer specialist, and dietitians: a whole range of specialties.”

“In one project we have a whole range of specialties: a nutritionist, a psychologist, statisticians, a computer specialist, and dietitians.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

Use a dash to set off an abrupt break or interruption and to announce a long explanation or summary. Helps add emphasis.

  • “A dash is a mark of separation stronger than a comma, less formal than a colon, and more relaxed than parentheses.”—Strunk and White

  • “Use a dash only when a more common mark of punctuation seems inadequate.”—Strunk and White

    i.e. Reserve this tool for the really tough jobs!


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash1
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

The drugs did more than prevent new fat accumulation. They also triggered overweight mice to shed significant amounts of fat—up to half their body weight. (emphasis)

To establish that the marrow cells—also called adult stem cells or endothelial precursor cells—can colonize the eye, Friedlander and his colleagues first transplanted stem cells from an adult mouse into the eyes of newborn mice. (long summary)

How would the feel of these sentences change with parentheses or commas?


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash2
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

With commas instead…(clunky and long…)

The drugs did more than prevent new fat accumulation. They also triggered overweight mice to shed significant amounts of fat, up to half their body weight.

To establish that the marrow cells, also called adult stem cells or endothelial precursor cells, can colonize the eye, Friedlander and his colleagues first transplanted stem cells from an adult mouse into the eyes of newborn mice.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash3
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

With parentheses instead…(buries the info.)

The drugs did more then prevent new fat accumulation. They also triggered overweight mice to shed significant amounts of fat (up to half their body weight).

To establish that the marrow cells (also called adult stem cells or endothelial precursor cells) can colonize the eye, Friedlander and his colleagues first transplanted stem cells from an adult mouse into the eyes of newborn mice.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash4
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

Researchers who study shipworms say these mislabeled animals—they’re clams, not worms—are actually a scientific treasure. (emphasis and added information)

The store—which is windowless and has clusters of unsmiling security guards standing at its entrances, as if it were the embassy of a particularly beleaguered nation—caters to rich Brazilians, members of the ten per cent of the population who command nearly half the national income, and wear Chanel, Valentino, or Dolce & Gabbana. (long description)


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash5
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

Commas instead…

Researchers who study shipworms say these mislabeled animals, they’re clams, not worms, are actually a scientific treasure. (commas aren’t strong enough to set off a clause)

The store, which is windowless and has clusters of unsmiling security guards standing at its entrances, as if it were the embassy of a particularly beleaguered nation, caters to rich Brazilians, members of the ten per cent of the population who command nearly half the national income, and wear Chanel, Valentino, or Dolce & Gabbana. (too long-winded without an abrupt pause)


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash6
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

Researchers who study shipworms say these mislabeled animals (they’re clams, not worms) are actually a scientific treasure. (buries the information)

The store (which is windowless and has clusters of unsmiling security guards standing at its entrances, as if it were the embassy of a particularly beleaguered nation) caters to rich Brazilians, members of the ten per cent of the population who command nearly half the national income, and wear Chanel, Valentino, or Dolce & Gabbana. (takes away from the description)


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash7
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

Baseball is the only game that’s played every day, which is why its season often seems endless, right up to the inning and the out—the little toss over to first base—when, wow, it ends.

Comma instead…

Baseball is the only game that’s played every day, which is why its season often seems endless, right up to the inning and the out, the little toss over to first base, when, wow, it ends. (no emphasis on the image)

Parentheses instead…

Baseball is the only game that’s played every day, which is why its season often seems endless, right up to the inning and the out (the little toss over to first base) when, wow, it ends. (makes it seem unimportant)


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash8
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

While all these steps are small and easily reversible—Libya is still ruled by a wacky megalomaniac—there is some real movement here.

Comma instead…

While all these steps are small and easily reversible, Libya is still ruled by a wacky megalomaniac, there is some real movement here. (run-on sentence)

Parentheses instead…

While all these steps are small and easily reversible (Libya is still ruled by a wacky megalomaniac) there is some real movement here. (buries the best part of the sentence!)


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash practice

Weak verb (means)

A long descriptive clause that could be set off by a dash.

Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash: Practice

  • Finally, the lessons of clinical epidemiology are not meant to be limited to academic physician-epidemiologists, who sometimes have more interest in analyzing data than caring for patients. Clinical epidemiology holds the promise of providing clinicians with the tools necessary to improve the outcomes of their patients.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash9

No transition.

 patients’ outcomes

Necessary?

 provides

Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash

  • Finally, the lessons of clinical epidemiology are not meant to be limited to academic physician-epidemiologists, who sometimes have more interest in analyzing data than caring for patients. Clinical epidemiology holds the promise of providing clinicians with the tools necessary to improve the outcomes of their patients.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash join and condense
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash: join and condense

  • Finally, clinical epidemiology is not limited toacademic physician-epidemiologists—who are sometimes more interested in analyzing data than caring for patients–-but provides clinicians with the tools to improve their patients’ outcomes.


Scientific writing hrp 214 the dash some technical details
Scientific Writing, HRP 214 The Dash: some technical details

HYPHEN (1 unit): to connect compound words or non-range numbers; to break word that will continue on next line:

 little-known fact, en-dash, 723-8222

EN-DASH (2 units): to indicate range (numbers, dates, time) or collaboration:

 pages 1 – 9 , open 9 am – 5 pm, Morris–Hayes lab, Sino–Soviet pact

 not a compound name of an individual, as in Catherine Zeta-Jones

EM-DASH (3 units): to represent a sudden break in thought that causes an abrupt change in sentence structure:

 The m-dash is longer—the length of the letter m.


Scientific writing hrp 21448
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Lesson 2: Use Parallel Construction


Scientific writing hrp 21449
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Unparallel:

Locusts denuded fields in Utah, rural Iowa was washed away by torrents, and in Arizona the cotton was shriveled by the placing heat.

Vs.

Parallel:

Locusts denuded fields in Utah, torrents washed away rural Iowa, and blazing heat shriveled Arizona’s cotton.


Scientific writing hrp 21450
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Make a choice and abide by it!


Scientific writing hrp 21451
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Pairs of ideas—two ideas joined by “and”, “or”, or “but”—should be written in parallel form.

Cardiac input decreased by 40% but

blood pressure decreased by only 10%.

SVX but SVX


Scientific writing hrp 21452
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Pairs of ideas—two ideas joined by “and” “or” or “but”—should be written in parallel form.

We hoped to increase the response and

to improve survival.

Infinitive phrase and infinitive phrase.


Scientific writing hrp 21453
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Lists of ideas (and number lists of ideas) should be written in parallel form.


Scientific writing hrp 214 parallelism
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Parallelism

Not Parallel:

If you want to be a good doctor, you must study hard, critically think about the medical literature, and you should be a good listener.

Parallel:

If you want to be a good doctor you must study hard, listen well, and think critically about the medical literature. (imperative, imperative, imperative)

Parallel:

If you want to be a good doctor, you must be a good student, a good listener, and a critical thinker about the medical literature. (noun, noun, noun)


Scientific writing hrp 214 parallelism1
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Parallelism

Not Parallel:

This research follows four distinct phases: (1) establishing measurement instruments (2) pattern measurement (3) developing interventions and (4) the dissemination of successful interventions to other settings and institutions.

Parallel:

This research follows four distinct phases: (1) establishing measurement instruments (2) measuring patterns (3) developing interventions and (4) disseminating successful interventions to other settings and institutions.


Scientific writing hrp 21454

confusing garbage

subject

predicate

Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Lesson 3: The case of the buried predicate…

One study of 930 adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving care in one of two managed care settings or in a fee-for-service setting found that only two-thirds of those needing to contact a neurologist for an MS-related problem in the prior 6 months had done so (Vickrey et al 1999).


Scientific writing hrp 21455
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

The case of the buried predicate…

One study found that, of 930 adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) who were receiving care in one of two managed care settings or in a fee-for-service setting, only two-thirds of those needing to contact a neurologist for an MS-related problem in the prior six months had done so (Vickrey et al 1999).


Profile writing exercise
Profile writing exercise…

  • Pick one person to be the interviewer and one to be the interviewee (we’ll swap next time).

  • Interview question: “What brought you to Stanford—spiritually, literally, or otherwise?”

  • Then each take 10 minutes to write up a 1-2 paragraph mini profile (SHORT, PUNCHY, CLEVER, HUMOROUS) of the other person. Use at least one dash or colon and at least one sentence with parallel construction.


Scientific writing hrp 21456
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

And finally…

This week’s top 5 countdown:


Scientific writing hrp 21457
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

1. Farther v. further

Farther is used for distance. (think far)

Further is used for time or quantity. (think future)

I can throw a ball farther than you.

I am pursuing that research further.


Scientific writing hrp 21458
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

Other similar words:

FORWARD v. FORWARDS v. FOREWORD

TOWARD v. TOWARDS

 Some sources prefer adverbs forward and toward to forwards and towards (a bit more formal without the s; s more common in UK); foreword = preface to a book


Scientific writing hrp 21459
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

2. Die of v. die from

People and animals die of, not from, specific diseases.

She died of a heart attack.


Scientific writing hrp 21460
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

3. compliment v. complement

Compliment is to praise or to present with a token of esteem.

Complement is to mutually complete each other.

She complimented his haircut.

That dress complements your eyes.

  • In complement, think of “complete-ment”

    • proteins completing antibodies (complement cascade), angles combining to reach 90 degrees, or musical intervals completing an octave


Scientific writing hrp 21461
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

A comic interlude, for illustration:

A man walks into a bar and sits down. He orders a beer and begins to drink it, when he hears a mysterious voice: “You're looking very handsome this evening.” The man looks around, but there’s no one else nearby. “That suit is quite magnificent," continues the voice. “And what a delightful tie!”

The man calls the bartender over and confides, somewhat sheepishly, “I keep hearing voices but I don't seem to be able to work out where they're coming from!“

The bartender replies, "It's the nuts, sir. They're complimentary."


Scientific writing hrp 21462
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

4. Comprise v. compose

Comprise means to contain. “Comprise” implies a complete listing, whereas “include” may signal an incomplete listing.

Compose means to make up.

The parts compose (make up) the whole; the whole comprises (contains) the parts.

The USA comprises 50 states. (the whole contains the parts)

Fifty states compose the USA. (the parts make up the whole)

The USA is composed of 50 states. (the whole is made up of the parts)

Fifty states are comprised in the USA. (the parts are contained in the whole)


Scientific writing hrp 21463
Scientific Writing, HRP 214

5. locate v. localize

Locate is to determine the position of something; to find its location.

Localize is to confine or fix in a particular area or part.

The police located the suspect at the edge of town.

Iodine tends to localize in the thyroid.


Scientific writing hrp 214 homework
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK

Read:

  • Read chapters 9-10 of Sin and Syntax (pp. 129-168)

  • Read Chapter 7 of Successful Scientific Writing

    Revise edited news story (3-unit students)

    Mini-exercises: more sentence rewriting


Scientific writing hrp 214 preview to next time
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Preview to next time…

  • For next time…

  • We continue our systematic review of the basics of writing.

    Words sentences paragraphs


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