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U.S. Census Bureau. Foreign Trade Division Understanding Foreign Trade Data April 23, 2009. U.S. Census Bureau. Overview of Imports and Exports Carol Aristone Commodity Analysis Branch Carol.Ann.Aristone@census.gov. What do the statistics measure? .

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U s census bureau

U.S. Census Bureau

Foreign Trade Division

Understanding Foreign Trade Data

April 23, 2009


U s census bureau1

U.S. Census Bureau

Overview of Imports and Exports

Carol Aristone

Commodity Analysis Branch

Carol.Ann.Aristone@census.gov


What do the statistics measure

What do the statistics measure?

  • The physical movement of goods between:

    • United States, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands

    • Foreign countries.


Coverage

Coverage

  • Movement of goods into & out of:

    • U.S. Customs Territory

    • U.S. Virgin Islands

    • Bonded Warehouses

    • Foreign Trade Zones (FTZs)


Coverage1

Coverage

  • Goods not included:

    • U.S. trade with U.S. territories

    • Trade between U.S. territories

    • Trade between foreign countries and U.S. territories (other than PR and VI)

    • In transit merchandise through the U.S.


What s not covered in statistics

What’s not Covered in Statistics?

  • Monetary gold & silver

  • U.S. government to U. S. government

  • Imports of articles repaired under warranty

  • Intangibles

  • Personal and household effects

  • Low valued transactions


The harmonized system hs

The Harmonized System (HS)

Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the U.S. Annotated for Statistical Reporting Purposes (HTSUSA)

Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the U.S. (Schedule B)


The hs system

The HS System

17,000+ HTSUSA & 8,000+ Schedule B codes

  • Periodically revised

  • Structure:

    • 2 digit Chapter

    • 4 digit Heading

    • 6 digit sub heading

    • 8 digit legal

    • 10 digit statistical


The hs system1

The HS System


What is the difference

What is the difference?

Export codes (Schedule B) are maintained by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Import codes are administered by the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC).

Import Codes CAN be used to classify Exports, but Exports codes CAN NOT be used to classify goods for import (Imports has a lot more detail!!)


Changes to the htsusa schedule b

Changes to the HTSUSA & Schedule B

Changesoccur three different ways:

  • WCO changes affect the HS (4 or 6 digit) level

  • Legislation – affects the legal (8-digit) level

    • Imports only

  • 484(f) committee – affects the statistical (10-digit) level


Exports

Exports


Related vs non related

Related vs. Non-related

  • Statistics cover the physical movement of goods, regardless of if item is sold

  • When a U.S. manufacturer exports merchandise to their company in France or to a non-related purchaser in Russia, both are counted as trade


Valuation

Valuation

  • F.A.S. Export Value (free alongside ship)

  • Value of export at port based on transaction price, including inland freight, insurance other charges incurred (before loaded)

  • Excludes international freight, cost of loading merchandise and any other charges/costs beyond port of export


Leases

Leases

  • If merchandise exported for <12 months

    • Non-statistical

  • Consignment - Temp. lease with option to buy

    • Statistical

    • Examples: artwork or aircraft


Repairs exports

Repairs – Exports

  • Exporting items for repair

    • Report Ch. 1-97 HS number of item

    • Non-statistical

    • AES export information code TR (temporary export for repair)

  • Exporting items repaired in U.S.

    • Report HS 9801 and value of repair

    • Statistical


Imports

Imports


Foreign trade zones imports

Foreign Trade Zones – Imports

  • Duties not required until goods withdrawn for consumption

  • Importer has choice to pay at the rate of the original foreign materials or the finished product

  • Can result in $3,000 new car

  • No duty if re-exported to foreign country


Bonded warehouses imports

Bonded Warehouses – Imports

  • Duty payment deferred

  • No duty if re-exported to foreign countries


General vs consumption

General vs. Consumption

General Imports – measures flow of goods across U.S. border

  • Imports for direct consumption

  • Bonded warehouse entries and FTZ admissions

  • Most widely used measure of imports


General vs consumption cont

General vs. Consumption (cont.)

Imports for Consumption – goods cleared through Customs

  • Imports for direct consumption

  • Bonded warehouse and FTZ withdrawals


Valuation1

Valuation

  • Customs Value

    • Generally, price actually paid excluding:

      • Duties

      • Freight

      • Insurance and other charges

    • Relationship b/w parties should not influence value


Valuation cont

Valuation (cont.)

  • CIF (cost, insurance, freight)

    • CIF = Customs Value + Import Charges

    • Excludes U.S. import duties


Valuation cont1

Valuation (cont.)

  • Dutiable Value

    • Customs value of foreign goods subject to duty

    • Where merchandise is a combination of U.S. and foreign goods, duty is applied only to the foreign value added


Valuation cont2

Valuation (cont.)

  • To determine the dutiable value of a combination of U.S. and foreign goods:

    • Example: 9802 provision

    • U.S. value is included in statistics

      • Value is total of domestic + foreign values

    • U.S. Goods indicators show that a portion of the import is domestic materials

    • Publication IM146A


Valuation cont3

Valuation (cont.)

  • Duty

    • Collected by CBP

    • FTD generally uses duty as reported to CBP


Country sub codes csc

Country Sub-Codes (CSC)

  • Indicates a special program allowing for free or reduced duty

  • Examples: GSP, US-Chile Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA

  • CSC used:

    • 00 = no special programs claimed

    • CA = Goods marked for Canada (NAFTA)

    • MX = Goods marked for Mexico (NAFTA)

    • Full list available on our website


Special provisions

Special Provisions

  • Chapter 98 & 99 for National use

    • Ch 98 - duty free/reduction

    • Ch 99 - legislation, executive and administrative actions


Special provisions cont

Special Provisions (cont.)

  • 9801 - U.S. goods exported and returned not advanced or improved

    • U.S. origin

    • Previously exported from U.S.


Special provisions cont1

Special Provisions (cont.)

  • 9802 – Goods with components of U.S. origin

    • U.S. goods assembled abroad

    • Importers deduct value of U.S. goods from total Customs value


Special provisions cont dual reporting of codes

Special Provisions (cont.)Dual Reporting of Codes

Report 10-digit statistical reporting number

  • Chapter 1-97

  • Unit of Quantity

    Followed by special provision

  • Chapter 98


Special provisions cont dual reporting of codes1

Special Provisions (cont.)Dual Reporting of Codes

9817.85.01

  • Prototypes for development, testing, evaluation

  • Free

    8422.11.0000

  • Dishwasher, household

  • 2.4%

    8422.19.0000

  • Dishwasher, other

  • Free


Special provisions cont2

Special Provisions (cont.)

  • Chapter 99

    • Quotas

    • Additional duties

    • Temporary reductions


Special provisions cont dual reporting of codes2

Special Provisions (cont.)Dual Reporting of Codes

  • Footnote 189 - See headings 9902.01.19, 9902.02.12, 9902.12.54, etc.

  • Reduced or duty free rates

  • 9902.01.19 Vinclozolin

  • Report 9902.01.19 - 2934.99.1200


Rate provision rp codes

Rate Provision (RP) codes

  • RP codes indicate free or dutiable status

  • Used in conjunction with goods imported using Ch. 98 or 99 code

  • RP code can relate back to Ch. 98 or 99

  • Assigned by FTD


Rate provisions cont

Rate Provisions (cont.)

  • Examples of RP codes:

    • RP 17 = Free as articles imported for the handicapped. Imported under HTS subheadings 9817.00.92, 9817.00.94 & 9817.00.96

    • RP 69 = Dutiable at rate prescribed in Rate of Duty columns of HTS Ch. 99. Duty reported

    • Full list available on our website


Repairs imports

Repairs – Imports

  • Importing repaired item

    • Report Ch. 98 number and value of repair

      • If under warranty – non-statistical

      • If Non-warranty – statistical

        • Also report Ch. 1-97 HS in order to determine duty

  • Importing item for repair

    • Temporary imports


Internet references

Internet References

  • FTD

    • http://www.census.gov/trade

  • Guide to Foreign Trade Statistics

    • http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/guide/index.html


Internet references cont

Internet References (cont.)

  • Schedule B

    • http://www.census.gov/scheduleb

  • HTSUSA

    • http://www.usitc.gov/tata/hts/bychapter/index.htm


Internet references cont1

Internet References (cont.)

  • CSC

    • http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/codes/csc.html

  • RP

    • http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/codes/rp.html


H ber

  • Any Questions?


Processing and editing

Processing and Editing

April 23, 2009

Rachelle J. Reeder

Methods Research and Quality Assurance

Rachelle.J.Reeder@census.gov


Introduction

Introduction

  • The Foreign Trade Division processes over 5 million import and export transactions a month.

  • Publish the official merchandise trade statistics on a monthly basis.

  • Ensure that published statistics are accurate.

  • Published data may appear different than what can be seen on the electronic systems.


Topics

Topics

  • Sources of Data

  • Processing

  • Data Categories

  • Differences

    • Differences between the ACE Portal and Published Statistics.


Sources of import data

Sources of Import Data

  • Imports

  • The Automated Commercial System (ACS)

  • E214 Program

  • Automated Foreign Trade Zone Reporting Program (AFTZRP)

  • Paper Documents

  • Canadian Gas and Electricity

  • Estimates


Sources of import data1

Sources of Import Data

  • Percent of Number of

  • Source Value Records

    • ACS 88 3,091K

    • E214 7 38K

    • AFTZRP 1 3K

    • Canada 2 .05K

    • Paper Documents 1 6K

    • CF-7501 and CF-214

    • Estimates 1 .2K

    • Totals 3.1 million

    • February 2009 data


Sources of export data

Sources of Export Data

  • Exports

  • Automated Export System (AES)

  • Canadian Data Exchange

  • Estimates


Sources of export data1

Sources of Export Data

  • Source Percent of Number of

  • Value Records

    • AES 80 1,403K

    • Canada 18 669K

    • Estimates 2 22K

    • Paper 0 .04K

    • Totals 2.1 million

    • February 2009 data


Sources of data

Sources of Data

  • Editing at point of collection

  • Data are edited at point of collection

  • Alerts the filer of any discrepancies

  • Ensures best quality data


Topics1

Topics

  • Sources of Data

  • Processing

  • Data Categories

  • Difference


Processing

Processing

  • Overview

  • Prepare for editing

  • Edit

  • Resolve errors

  • Categorize and aggregate the data


Prepare records for editing

Prepare Records for Editing

  • Combine Sources

  • Reformat data to uniform structure

  • Identify Non-statistical transactions

  • Low value records


Prepare records for editing1

Prepare Records for Editing

  • Statistical time periods

  • Imports - Release date

  • Exports - Clearance date

  • Statistical month

  • Carryover


Prepare records for editing2

Prepare Records for Editing

  • Preliminary Alterations

  • Recode commodities as necessary

  • Convert Schedule B from HTSUSA (exports only)

  • Convert quantities


Prepare records for editing3

Prepare Records for Editing

  • Apply Corrections to Data

  • Customs corrections

  • Filer corrections


Editing

Editing

  • Overview

  • Code Validations

  • Relationship Edits

  • Ratio Edits

  • Range Edits


Editing1

Editing

  • Code Validations

  • We validate codes with lookup tables that are updated monthly.

    • Harmonized System commodity

    • Country of origin

    • Foreign port

    • U.S. port

    • Special Program Indicators (imports)


Editing2

Editing

  • Relationship Edits

  • Commodity-specific relationship edits

  • Example: import bananas from Greenland

  • Mode of Transportation and Port of Unlading relationship


Editing3

Editing

  • Ratio Edits

  • Verify numeric data by computing ratios

  • Check ratios against commodity-specific ranges

  • Several types of ratio edits

    • Quantity to value

    • Quantity to shipping weight/value to shipping weight

    • First quantity to second quantity for shipments requiring two quantities


Editing4

Editing

  • Ratio Edits

  • Unit price example - Fireworks

    • We edit the quantity using unit price parameters of 0.663966/kg and $30.165/kg

    • We expect a $40,000 shipment of fireworks from China to have a quantity between 1,326 kg and 60,244 kg


Editing5

Editing

  • Range Edits

  • Range Edits

    • Shipping weight exceeds what the mode of transportation can carry

  • Commodity-Specific Range Edits

    • Focus on each individual commodity

    • Example: 20 kilograms of diamonds unlikely


Editing6

Editing

  • Commodity Specific Parameters

  • 2.7 million parameters

  • Files containing editing parameters by commodity

  • Flexible – can easily make necessary changes to parameters


Editing7

Editing

  • Error resolution

  • Cannot review every erroneous record

  • Analysts review records that have the most impact

  • Edit programs impute the other records


Editing8

Editing

  • Estimation

  • Estimate a new quantity or shipping weight from a factor and value or previously edited field

  • Unit price example

  • 1,000 kg of fireworks valued at $40,000 would reject our edit. Using an imputation factor of $4.51/kg, the edit program would change quantity to 8,853 kg.


Editing9

Editing

  • Analyst review

  • Contact the filer

  • Ensure correct classification

  • Bypass the edits


Editing10

Editing

  • Analyst Review

  • Review data by grouping individual records

  • Aggregate by commodity to determine if total values and quantities are reasonable

  • Utilize control files

  • Compare measures to previous months – look for missing or misreported data and identify processing problems


Topics2

Topics

  • Sources of Data

  • Processing

  • Data Categories

  • Difference

    • Differences between the ACE Portal and the Published Statistics.


Import data categories

Import Data Categories

  • General Imports

    • Measures the arrival of goods into the United States.

    • Consumption Entry and Admission to Warehouse/FTZ

  • Imports for Consumption

    • Measures the merchandise that have cleared Customs.

    • Consumption Entry and Warehouse/FTZ Withdrawal


Import data categories1

Import Data Categories

Usually

Imports for Consumption <= General Imports

Remember:

Consumption = Consumption+withdrawals

General = Consumption+admissions


Why could consumption be greater than general imports

Why could Consumption be greater than General Imports?

Goods processed in a FTZ

Example: Petroleum entered in FTZ

  • General import stats would show Ch 27 when goods admitted to FTZ

  • Petroleum is processed in the zone, creating byproducts classified in Ch 25

  • Therefore imports for consumption are based on what EXITS the zone (Ch 25)


Why could consumption be greater than general imports1

Why could Consumption be greater than General Imports?

Petroleum processed in a FTZ could result in:

Chapter 27

General import stats > Consumption stats

Chapter 25

General Import stats < Consumption stats


Export data categories

Export Data Categories

  • Domestic

    • Merchandise grown, produced or manufactured in the U.S.

    • Foreign merchandise changed in the U.S.

  • Foreign (re-export)

    • Foreign merchandise, entered for consumption or into a warehouse or FTZ, that is unchanged at the time of export.


Data categories

Data Categories

  • Noncontiguous trade

    • PR and VI trade with U.S. are Non-contiguous exports (separate data product)


Topics3

Topics

  • Sources of Data

  • Processing

  • Data Categories

  • Differences

    • Differences between the ACE Portal and Published Statistics.


Ace portal

ACE Portal

  • Several sources of data are used in Census publications.

  • Data users will not see all the data, such as statistics on paper, and low value estimates.


Ace portal1

ACE Portal

  • Census Categorizes data by Entry Types

    • General Imports

    • Consumption Imports

  • The Ace Portal will contain all entry types

    • Double counting trade into and out of warehouses and Foreign Trade Zones


  • Ace portal2

    ACE Portal

    • Differences in the data

      • Editing and imputing to the data occur after the data are extracted from the source

      • Non-statistical data are not published

      • Multi-commodity line reporting


    Ace portal3

    ACE Portal

    • Time periods

      • Late filings are published in a later statistical month, and then corrected in the yearly revisions.

      • Early filings are held until the next processing month


    Data processing and editing

    Data Processing and Editing

    • Questions!

    • Rachelle.J.Reeder@census.gov

    • (301)763-6922


    H ber

    The

    United States – Canada Data Exchange

    Wandra V. McKee

    Process Coordination Staff

    U.S. Census Bureau

    April 23, 2009

    Wandra.V.McKee@census.gov


    What is the united states canada data exchange

    What is the United States – Canada Data Exchange?

    Agreement between the governments of the United States and Canada

    based on a

    Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)


    Who is involved

    Who is Involved?

    • UNITED STATES

    • U.S. Census Bureau (BOC)

    • U.S. Customs & Border Protection (CBP)

    • CANADA

    • Statistics Canada (STC)

    • Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)


    How does it work

    How Does It Work?

    • U.S. Exports to Canada -

    • Canadian Imports from the U.S.

    • and

    • Canadian Exports to the U.S. -

    • U.S. Imports from Canada


    Why was it created

    Why Was It Created?

    • ‣ Rise in Exportunder coverage

    • Other Benefits:

    • ‣ Decreaseoperating costs to process Export Declarations

    • ‣ Eliminate reporting burden of Exporters

    • ‣ Locationandlanguage of both countries


    What are some differences in the data exchange

    What Are Some Differences in the Data Exchange?

    • ° Port Codes

    • ° State of Export

    • ° Vendor vs. Exporter (USPPI)


    How do we receive canadian import data

    How Do We Receive Canadian Import Data?

    • > STC transmits files twice per month

    • >Adjustments are required


    What kind of adjustments

    What Kind of Adjustments?

    • Freight Charges

    • Currency Conversion

    • Exports of Foreign Goods to Canada

    • Exports of U.S. Goods to Canada from Third Party Countries

    • * Revisions


    Freight charges

    Freight Charges

    • ▪Includedin U.S. Exports

    • ▪Excludedin Canadian Imports

    • ▪Added to compensate for difference in valuation


    Currency conversion

    Currency Conversion

    • ~ U.S. Federal Reserve’s

    • monthly exchange rate

    • ~ STC converts to U.S. dollars;

    • transmits data to BOC


    Exports of foreign goods to canada

    Exports of Foreign Goodsto Canada

    • • Transmitted from STC

    • • BOC includes these goods

    • in U.S. export statistics


    Exports of u s goods to canada from third party countries

    Exports of U.S. Goods to Canada from Third Party Countries

    • •Transmitted from STC

    • • BOC excludes these goods from U.S. export statistics


    Revisions

    Revisions

    • • Estimates for Late Arrivals

    • • Corrections from STC

    • • Corrections Made by BOC


    Estimates for late arrivals

    Estimates for Late Arrivals

    • • STC sends with second transmittal

    • • Estimates replaced with actual values the following month in the

    • FT-900 press release only


    Corrections from stc

    Corrections from STC

    • STC sends with second transmittal

    • Corrections from first transmittal


    Corrections made by boc

    Corrections Made By BOC

    • • Commodity analysts verify corrections with their STC counterparts

    • • Corrections made prior to publication, when possible


    Questions

    ??? Questions ???

    • Wandra V. McKee

    • Wandra.V.McKee@census.gov


    U s census bureau foreign trade division

    U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

    Trade with Partner Countries

    Emmanuel Omoruyi

    April 23, 2009

    U.S. Census Bureau


    Trade with partner countries

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Definition of Partner Country

    • Special Cases

    • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies

    • Resolving Trade Discrepancies

    • Work in Progress with Partner countries


    Trade with partner countries1

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Definition of Partner Country

    • Exports - Country of Ultimate Destination

    • as known at the time of exportation


    Trade with partner countries2

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Definition of Partner Country

    • What is considered an export ?

    • Domestically produced merchandise

    • sold to a foreign country

    • Foreign goods resold to a foreign country

    • Parts exported for further processing or incorporation into a more advanced product

    • Capital equipment shipped to a foreign assembly or manufacturing location

    • Charitable goods


    Trade with partner countries3

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Definition of Partner Country

    • Imports – Country of Origin

    • Grown, mined, produced or manufactured

    • “Substantially transformed”

    • U.S. Customs define country of origin based on legal, trade agreement and policy


    Trade with partner countries4

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Definition of Partner Country

    • Imports- Country of Origin

    • China exports domestic product to India

    • India incorporates product but not “substantially transformed” under U.S. rules and export the product to the U.S.

    • China is still country of origin


    Trade with partner countries5

    Trade with Partner countries


    Trade with partner countries6

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Definition of Partner Country

    • Imports – Country of Origin

    • United Kingdom exports U.S. manufactured aircraft and cars to Germany, which sell to Argentina

    • United Kingdom: exports to Germany

    • Germany: Imports from U.S.

    • Argentina: Imports from U.S


    Trade with partner countries7

    Trade with Partner Countries


    Trade with partner countries8

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Special Cases

    • Re-imports:

    • Reported under HS 9801- imports from country of shipment

    • Country of origin undetermined

    • International Standard Organization (ISO) coding errors


    Trade with partner countries9

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Special Cases

    • In-Transit Goods

    • U.N. Guidelines– exclude goods moving under Customs bond from statistics

    • Shipper may choose to enter and re-export

    • - EX: Goods transiting U.S. Between Canada and Mexico

    • Imports from Canada

    • Re-export to Mexico


    Trade with partner countries10

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies

    • Valuation of goods

    • Definition of goods Traded

    • Trade through a third Country

    • Geographic Coverage

    • Low Value

    • Classification issues

    • Undercounting or under reporting


    Trade with partner countries11

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies

    • The valuation of goods

      • U.S. value imports on C.I.F basis and exports on F.A.S basis. Other countries often value trade differently.

    • Definition of goods

      • The U.S. does not count containers as goods traded with partner’s countries


    Trade with partner countries12

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies

    • Third country

      • Foreign countries often don’t know final destination of their exports.

    • Geographic coverage

      • Trading partners’ often treat Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands trade as trade with separate countries.


    Trade with partner countries13

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies

    • Low Value

    • –$2000 for imports, $2500 for exports

    • Classification issues

      • True commodity classification

    • Undercounting or under reporting

      • Import trade is generally more accurate than export.

      • Export trade may be understated


    Trade with partner countries14

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Resolving Trade Discrepancies

    • Reconciliation is done to resolve significant trade discrepancies between reported U.S. trade values and a partner’s trade values.

    • We try to resolve the trade difference by assigning reasons and dollar amounts for all previous sources.


    Trade with partner countries15

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Resolving Trade Discrepancies

    • U.S. Published Imports (Total Imports)

    • Re-imports (-)

    • Imports from 3rd countries (-)

    • Shipping Containers (-)

    • Geographical coverage (PR & VI) (-)

    • Low Value (-)

    • Re-exports (+)

    • Residuals

    • Partner Published Exports (Total Exports)

    • .


    Trade with partner countries16

    Trade with Partner Countries

    • Current Reconciliation Work

    • China:

    • -Hong Kong re-exports; 3rd Country issue

    • -Processing Regimes; Valuation issue

    • -Ship Cranes-Harmonize System code (HS 842619);

    • commodity issue

    • Morocco:

    • -Special trade; trade agreement issue

    • -Export through Europe; 3rd country issue

    • .


    Trade with partner countries17

    Trade with Partner Countries

    Any questions ?

    Emmanuel.O.Omoruyi@census.gov


    Methods research quality assurance branch

    Methods Research & Quality Assurance Branch

    Port and

    Mode of Transportation Data

    Andrew Chang

    April 23, 2009

    U.S. Census Bureau


    Objectives

    Objectives

    • District/Port Data Definitions.

    • Mode of Transportation (MOT).

    • Data Quality Issues.


    What is a port code

    What is a Port Code?

    • A 4 digit number consisting of the customs District and Port.

    • 1301

    District

    Port


    Port data definitions

    Port Data Definitions

    Port of Exportation

    • Vessel or Air – Customs port where merchandise is loaded on the conveyance that takes it out of the country.

      • Vessel could be containerized or non containerized.

    • Overland – Customs port where merchandise crosses the U.S. border into foreign territory.


    Port data definitions cont

    Port Data Definitions Cont.

    Port of Entry

    • Import Port of Entry

      • The port in which merchandise clears Customs for entry into consumption, bonded warehouses, or Foreign Trade Zones.

    • Import Port of Unlading

      • The port where merchandise is unloaded from the importing vessel or aircraft.


    Mode of transportation mot

    Mode of Transportation (MOT)

    • Transportation Statistics Categories

      • Vessel, Air, and Other Methods.

      • Based on the MOT by which the merchandise arrives in or departs from the United States.

      • We obtain this information from the documentation the filers provide.

      • Other methods are available for certain publications (i.e. rail vs. truck or container vs. non container for vessel) .


    Mode of transportation cont

    Mode of TransportationCont.

    • Entering/Departing through Canada & Mexico.

    • Recorded under the MOT by which they enter or depart the U.S. regardless of the transportation mode for the rest of their journey.


    How does a truck get here from china

    How does a truck get here from China?

    • MOT is identified by the method of conveyance that is used when the shipment crosses the border into the U.S.

    • Example: China  Canada on vessel, then Canada  U.S. on truck.

    • Over 5% of goods arriving over land originate in countries other than Canada and Mexico.


    Reporting of district port data

    Reporting of District/Port Data

    • Filing

      • Imports – data captured at time of entry summary.

      • Exports – port where shipment is expected to ship from.


    Quality issues related to filing

    Quality Issues Related to Filing.

    • Knowledge of Filer.

    • Airports and Seaports.

    • Correcting the obsolete/incorrect codes.

    • Unknown container status is coded as non-container.


    Quality issues relating to mail pipeline and other unknowns

    Quality Issues relating to Mail, Pipeline and Other Unknowns

    U.S. Mail

    • For exports via U.S. Mail, filers can report any code, but the Census Bureau changes the code to ‘8000’ .

    • The Census Bureau corrects some export shipments that are incorrectly reported as mail (e.g. fire trucks) .


    Mail pipeline and other unknowns

    Mail, Pipeline and Other Unknowns

    Pipeline

    • For shipments by pipeline, exporters file with the port having jurisdiction for the pipeline.


    User fee ports and nearby ports

    User-Fee Ports and Nearby Ports

    • Many small package couriers have their own port codes

    • Recoding of courier port codes


    Canadian data exchange

    Canadian Data Exchange

    • Quality Issue

      • We take Canada’s imports for our exports which can lead to inaccurate port code information

      • Canada does not collect containerized vessel shipment information for their imports

      • Thus for Canadian shipments, all vessel shipments have unspecified as the container status


    Questions1

    Questions?

    Andrew Chang

    Andrew.Chang@census.gov

    (301) 763-1022


    U s census bureau foreign trade division1

    U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

    Quality Issues

    Robin Gibson

    April 23, 2009

    U.S. Census Bureau


    Topics covered

    Topics Covered

    • Uses of Foreign Trade Statistics

    • Quality Issues

    • Responses to Quality Issues


    Uses of foreign trade statistics

    Uses of Foreign Trade Statistics

    • Accurate trade data are necessary for economic, commercial, and policy purposes.

    • Used by

      • Government

      • Non-Government


    Government uses

    Government Uses

    • Develop the merchandise trade figures

      • To appraise and analyze major movements and trends in international trade

      • To evaluate and plan various programs

      • To measure impact of tariff and trade concessions

  • Statistical base to implement and analyze operations under various international agreements

    • E.g. NAFTA


  • Government uses cont

    Government Uses (cont.)

    • Meet legal and regulatory requirements

      Imports

      • Correctly assess import duties

      • Administer embargoes and quotas

      • Restrict counterfeit items entering the country

      • Implement control policies

        Exports

        Effectively administer control and regulatory policies for

      • national security or foreign policy reasons

      • implement export quotas or embargo programs

      • administer short supply programs


    Non government uses

    Non-Government Uses

    • Users in industry, finance, research, and transportation

      • Appraise the general trade situation and outlook

      • Perform share-of-the-market analyses and market penetration studies

      • Aid in product and market development

      • Measure the impact of competition

      • Determine marketing policies


    Importance of data quality

    Importance of Data Quality

    • Leading economic indicator

    • Wide and varied group of uses

    • Committed to producing quality data

    • To use information wisely and appropriately need to understand limitations.


    Quality issues

    Quality Issues

    • Reporting Errors

    • Documentation

    • Low Value

    • Carryover

    • Revisions


    Reporting errors

    Reporting Errors

    • Mistakes or omissions made by importers, exporters, or their agents when reporting import or export shipments

    • Common Data Elements

    • quantity or shipping weight

    • state of origin designation

    • commodity code

    • charges


    Reporting errors1

    Reporting Errors

    • Misclassification of Commodity Codes

    • Import information subject to greater scrutiny so more common with exports and duty free imports

    • Results in inaccuracies for commodity level detailed data


    Reporting errors2

    Reporting Errors

    • Reasons for Misclassification

      • Typos

      • Duty avoidance

      • Not understanding the classification system

    *Census Bureau utilizes edits to detect misreporting and send error messages to the filers*


    Reporting errors3

    Reporting Errors

    • Charges

      • Invoiced freight, insurance, or other charges

        • If included in the invoice price must be included in the Customs Value

        • If an importer does not know the exact value of all charges, must be estimated

        • The filer must have documentation to exclude an item from Custom Value

      • Result is actual value may be overstated


    Quality issues1

    Quality Issues

    • Reporting Errors

    • Documentation

    • Low Value

    • Carryover

    • Revisions


    Documentation

    Documentation

    • Documentation issues can arise when shipments

      • move through an intermediary country

      • move through Foreign Trade Zones (FTZs)

      • consist of rail cars and/or locomotives


    Documentation1

    Documentation

    • Intermediary Country

    • Canada

      • Exports to Canada; no documentation required

      • Exports where Canada is not the ultimate destination country; documentation is required

    • Transiting Goods

      • When under bond, excluded from trade statistics

      • Sometimes entered into the US using import entry summary and an export declaration is filed


    Documentation2

    Documentation

    • Foreign Trade Zones

    • Goods enter a FTZ

      • A customs form 214 is filled out

    • Goods withdrawn from a FTZ can be

      • Imports

      • Exports

      • In-bond


    H ber

    Documentation

    Foreign Trade Zone Withdrawals

    FTZ

    Foreign

    Country

    FTZ

    U.S. Customs

    Territory

    Export documentation should be

    filled out

    Shipment in-bond,

    no duties paid

    Import documentation must be filled out, duties paid


    Documentation3

    Documentation

    • Imports of Rail Cars

    • By law importers of rail cars and locomotives are not required to report their shipments, when duty free

    • Statistics Canada (STC)

      • established a voluntary survey

      • included as a revision to Canada’s export trade data since late 2004


    Quality issues2

    Quality Issues

    • Reporting Errors

    • Documentation

    • Low Value

    • Carryover

    • Revisions


    What is low value

    What is Low Value?

    • Value-based exemptions

      • If value is under the exemption level

        • Import shipments – do not have to report full details

        • Export transactions – do not have to report

      • Initially enacted in the early 1960s

      • Introduced to relieve increasing filer burden

      • Updated several times since


    Low value estimation

    Low Value Estimation

    • Amount of detailed records collected from low valued shipments declined

    • Value of these shipments is estimated

    • Factors based on ratios of low valued shipments to individual country total for past periods

    • Monthly trade total for each country multiplied by the factor, to produce a estimate of low value as a percentage of total value

    • Factors received last major update in 1989


    Update to low value estimation

    Update to Low Value Estimation

    • Currently working on an update to the low value estimation methodology

    • Anticipate implementing for imports and exports in 2010.


    Quality issues3

    Quality Issues

    • Reporting Errors

    • Documentation

    • Low Value

    • Carryover

    • Revisions


    Carryover

    Carryover

    • Trade records received and/or processed too late for inclusion with records in the correct transaction month

    • Current carryover rate (2008 avg. of total value)

      • 0.36% exports

      • 0.81% imports


    Carryover1

    Carryover

    • Each month in the FT900, the total import, export, trade balance and “end-use” totals for the prior month are adjusted for carryover

      • SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) and country detail reports not revised

  • Annual revision takes place each June

    • SITC and country detail reports are revised


  • Quality issues4

    Quality Issues

    • Reporting Errors

    • Documentation

    • Low Value

    • Carryover

    • Revisions


    Revisions1

    Revisions

    • Every June of the current year, FTD publishes an annual revision of the previous year

      • Carryover correction

      • Corrections resulting from data investigations

      • Customs and Canadian revisions


    Response to quality issues

    Response to Quality Issues

    • What we’re doing to address these concerns.


    Automated reporting

    Automated Reporting

    • Effective July 2, 2008 all exports must be filed through the Automated Export System (AES)

    • Imports can be electronically filed through the Automated Broker Interface (ABI), and soon through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE)


    Benefits of automated reporting

    Benefits of Automated Reporting

    • Receive and compile data quickly

    • Reduce Error

      • Exports (as of a 2001 study)

        • 57% of paper SEDs contain errors

        • 10% of AES records contain errors

      • Imports (as of a 2001 study)

        • 37% of Customs Entry Forms 7501 contain errors

        • 8% of ABI records contain errors


    Benefits of automated reporting1

    Benefits of Automated Reporting

    • Online, instant validation checks

    • Reduction in carryover

  • Exports

    • AES Compliance Review Program

    • Less export paper documents are lost


  • Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • FTD continues to monitor the quality of data during collection, processing, and publication.

    • We are constantly exploring ways to further improve the quality of international trade data.


    Questions2

    Questions ?

    • roberta.gibson@census.gov

    • (301) 763-4690

    • Methods Research and Quality Assurance Branch

    • (301) 763-3080


    U s census bureau foreign trade division2

    U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

    Profile of U.S. Exporting Companies 2006-2007

    Ben Shelak

    April 23, 2009

    U.S. Census Bureau


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 2007

    Profile of U.S. Exporters2006 – 2007

    Released April 9, 2009

    Available on FTD Website back to 1996

    http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/aip/index.html#profile


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20071

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    U.S. Census Bureau News

    U.S. Department of Commerce • Washington, D.C. 20230

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

    8:30 A.M. EST FRIDAY, APRIL 9, 2009

    For information contact: (301) 763-3629 CB-xx-xx

    Jeff McHugh or Benjamin Shelak

    A Profile of U.S. Exporting Companies, 2006 - 2007


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20072

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    Partially $ponsored by the

    International Trade Administration (ITA)

    Produced by the Special Projects Branch

    Produced by linking export records to the Census Business Register, which contains employment, company types, & company locations


    H ber

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    Composition of Total Export Value: 2007

    • Unidentified = Exports that could not be matched to Business Register

    • Identified = Exports that could be matched to the Business Register (Known export value)

    • Other = Low value est., revisions, Gov’t shipments


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20073

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    • The Profile can answer questions such as:

      • Value that can be attributed to large manufacturers in 2007

      • Canada’s known export value that can be attributed to companies with 1 to 19 employees

      • Number of companies that exported from Maryland in 2007 and how much known value was exported


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20074

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    • Profile Provides Data Users:

      • Exporting community’s employment sizes, types of companies, & major foreign markets

      • Top 25 U.S. export countries and multiple country groupings

      • Export value and number of exporters for each state (OM State)

      • Number of employees of identified exporting companies


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20075

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    Profile Characteristics - I

    • Company type – NAICS based

      (North American Industry Classification System)

      Manufacturers

      Wholesalers

      Other

      Unclassified


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20076

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    Profile Characteristics - II

    • Company size - # of employees

      Small (0-99 employees)

      Medium (100-499 employees)

      Large (500 or more employees)


    H ber

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    2007 Known Export Value

    By Company Type


    H ber

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    2007 Top 10 Export Countries

    Known Export Value(in billions)


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20077

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    • 2007

    • Export Concentration

    % of Known Export Value


    H ber

    Number of Exporters (266,457)

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    Employee Sizes:

    Known Export Value ($1,031 bil.)


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20078

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    How is our data valuable to data users?

    Example:

    A data user wants to know how many Large sized companies (500+ Employees) export to OPEC countries and how much value is exported.


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 20079

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    Special requests for data:

    We may be able to provide special tabulations that are not included in the Profile.

    Example:

    A data user wanted to know the number of U.S. companies that exported to Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) countries in a given year.

    Table 5a of the Profile did not provide export data on these CAFTA countries, so we compiled the data for the data user.


    Profile of u s importers

    Profile of U.S. Importers

    • Why? - To meet a growing demand for statistics on U.S. importers

    • Produced by linking import records to the Census Business Register, which contains employment, company types, & company locations


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 200710

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    • The EDB Team

    • Jeffrey McHugh

    • Ben Shelak

    • (301)763-3629


    Profile of u s exporters 2006 200711

    Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

    Any Questions?


    U s census bureau foreign trade division3

    U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

    Origin of Movement Export State

    Origin State, ZIP Code & Sub-state Data

    John Chantis

    April 23, 2009

    U.S. Census Bureau


    H ber

    Background:

    • Origin of Movement (OM) State – Based on

      Origin State “State OM”

    • Origin of Movement (OM) State – Based on

      ZIP Code “ZIP Code OM”


    H ber

    Background:

    • For more information visit http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/state/index.html

    • Data Dissemination Branch 301-763-2311


    H ber

    • Based on Origin State:

    • Available 1987-Present

    • Based on the state in which the goods begin their journey to the port of export

    • Does not represent the production origin of U.S. export merchandise


    H ber

    • Origin State examples:

    • Goods warehoused in GA  transported to a FL port to be shipped to a foreign country. OM state is……GA

    • Auto parts produced from many states are consolidated in TX to be exported to Mexico. OM state is……TX.


    H ber

    • Origin of Movement (OM) State Series – Based on Origin State

    • Available in our monthly FT900 Press Release, supplement, exhibit 2

    • Web address:

      http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/current_press_release/exh2s.pdf

    • More detailed information


    H ber

    • Based on ZIP Code:

    • Available January 2006 - Present

    • The ZIP Code of the USPPI, the party in the US that receives the primary benefit

      from the shipment

    • Does not necessarily represent the location of the USPPI


    H ber

    • ZIP Code State examples:

    • Goods warehoused in GA  transported to a FL port to be shipped to a foreign country. ZIP state is ...GA.

    • Auto parts produced from many states are consolidated in TX to be exported to Mexico. ZIP state is……TX.


    H ber

    • ZIP Code based report:

    • Similar to FT-900 supplement, exhibit 2 press release; available on our website:

      http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/state/zip/index.html


    H ber

    • Regulations – address of the USPPI

    • Effective October 2008, the USPPI should report the address from which the goods begin the journey to the port of export.

    • Same for state code and ZIP Code.


    Om state vs zip based state in millions of dollars

    OM State vs. ZIP Based State(in millions of dollars)

    2008

    Q1 = -14.96 Median = -3.47 Q3 = 6.97

    #States within (-10%, 10%) = 25


    H ber

    • Other available state data products:

    • FTD - Quarterly and Annual OM & ZIP state data is available for download.

    • Please call our Current Systems Programming Branch on 301-763-2214.

    • Available in three options….

      Option 1: State by 3-Digit NAICS Commodity by Country (Total, Air and Vessel).

      Option 2: Region by 4-Digit SITC, District/Port of Exit, & Country (Total, Air & Vessel).

      Option 3: State by District/Port of Exit, & Country (Total, Air & Vessel)- No Commodity Detail


    H ber

    Other products …

    • Manufacturing and Construction Division (MCD) - Gives exports by state and 3 digit NAICS. Available online at http://www.census.gov/mcd/exports/.


    H ber

    Sub-State Data

    • Data historically based on Metropolitan Area (MA).

    • The term “Core Based Statistical Area” (CBSA) is a collective term, defined by Office of Management & Budget (OMB), for metro and micro areas.

    • New definitions for CBSA’s were announced by OMB on June 2003.


    H ber

    Sub-State Data

    • CBSA’s based on ZIP Code of US Principal Party in Interest (USPPI).

    • CBSA’s now cover areas of 10 to 50 thousand population, which were not covered by MA’s.

    • CBSA codes increase coverage to about 93% of the population vs 80% with MA’s.


    H ber

    Sub-State Data

    • In preparation for reintroducing ZIP Code based tables, in 2006 completed a quality review of ZIP Codes based on 2005 data

    • Historically, under contract, we have produced data for ITA

    • To date we provided 3-digit ZIP Code & CBSA Metro totals for 2005 - 2007 Export data to ITA http://ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea/metro/


    H ber

    • Next Steps…

    • Have started our analysis to provide data to ITA based on 2008 trade.

    • The current contract calls for CBSA by 3-digit NAICS, CBSA by Destination, 3-digit NAICS by CBSA, and other tables of trade totals.

    • 2008 CBSA data will be available mid to late 2009.


    H ber

    For more information:

    John.Chantis@Census.gov

    Special Projects Branch

    Foreign Trade Division

    (301) 763-3251

    www.census.gov/foreign-trade/www/


    H ber

    Any Questions?


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