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How to prepare a European Digital Library Olaf D. Janssen The European Library Office The Hague, The Netherlands. ICADL Dec 2007. Structure of presentation. 1. National libraries in Europe 2. The European Library (TEL) 2.1 What is it? 2.2 Demo 2.3 How does it work?

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How to prepare a European Digital Library

Olaf D. Janssen

The European Library Office

The Hague, The Netherlands

ICADL Dec 2007


Structure of presentation
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments


Structure of presentation1
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments


Europe relevant institutions

1. National libraries in Europe

Europe – relevant institutions

  • European Union (EU)- Founded 1992- 27 members states- Major project funderMore  www.eu.int

  • Council of Europe (CoE)- Founded 1949- 47 member states, 800M people - Aim: to achieve a greater unitybetween its members. More  www.coe.int


National libraries

1. National libraries in Europe

National libraries

  • By law 1 per country (Russia & Italy 2)

  • Roles:

    • Deposit library(national bibliography)

    • Scientific library

    • Sometimes also university library (eg FI, SI)

  • Preserving, managing& opening national cultural heritage (documents)

  • Promoting&supporting national& international co-operation

  • Research & development (national & international)


National libraries in europe

1. National libraries in Europe

National libraries in Europe

  • National library  e.g. British Library

  • 47 official national libraries – 45 countries(Council of Europe)

  • 20y collaboration, consensus & trust Since 1987, since 1995 online

  • Latest collaborative project is The European Library


More info www theeuropeanlibrary org libraries

1. National libraries in Europe

More info: www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/libraries



A new exhibition
A new exhibition


Architecture of europe s national libraries
Architecture of Europe’s National Libraries



Www theeuropeanlibrary org exhibition this commercial break was sponsored by theeuropeanlibrary org
www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org/exhibitionThis commercial breakwas sponsored by TheEuropeanLibrary.org


Structure of presentation2
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


Structure of presentation3
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


TheEuropeanLibrary.org =- service of all 47 European national libraries - to provide access to their- catalogues & digital collections - via 1 central multi-lingual web interface - (= portal)

2.1 Introduction to The European Library

What is The European Library?



Background

2.1 Introduction to The European Library

Background

  • Origin in 2001: 2.5y feasibility study funded by EU

  • Intended to create operational service from start, so business plan was part of feasibility study

  • TheEuropeanLibrary.org is live since March 2005

  • Funded by the national libraries (NOT EU)

  • Development + maintenance by The European Library Office (Netherlands – 9 FTE)


Vision

2.1 Introduction to The European Library

Vision

“Provision of equal access to promote world-wide understanding of the richness and diversity of European learning and culture.”

“The European Library exists to open up the universe of knowledge, information and culture of all Europe's national libraries”

Mission


2.1 Introduction to The European Library

9

Members of The European Library – year by year

2005 : Netherlands, Switzerland, UK, Finland, France, Germany, Portugal, Italy-Florence, Italy-Rome

2006 : Malta, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Estonia, Poland, Slovakia Austria, Serbia, Croatia, Denmark

2007 :Belgium, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Russia-Moscow

end 2008 : Bulgaria & Romania

end 2008 : Albania, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Georgia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Ukraine

end 2008 : Turkey + Russia-StPetersburg

23

33

35

43

45


What s good about the european library

2.1 Introduction to The European Library

What’s good about The European Library

For end-users

  • Have integrated access (1-stop-shop) to catalogues & digital collections of national libraries of Europe

  • Quality-controlled deep web resources

  • 310+ collections - 170M bibliographic records - millions digital objects

For the national libraries

  • International showcase for collections

  • Wider access to their collections & content

  • Combined political mass  greater marketing and negotiation power.


Structure of presentation4
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans




Homepage in Icelandic

…. or 23 other languages





2.2 Demo – searching in The European Library

2. Themed search

Theme = religion



2.2 Demo – searching in The European Library

3. Search all collections from Estonia(in Estonian interface)



Structure of presentation5
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


2 the european library
2. The European Library

2.3 How does it work?

Common standards

C. Collection

descriptions

A. Access protocols

B. Metadata

D. Multilingual

access


2 the european library1
2. The European Library

2.3 How does it work?

Common standards

C. Collection

descriptions

A. Access protocols

B. Metadata

D. Multilingual

access


2.3.A Access protocols in The European Library

The European Library = hybrid portal = federated search tool

  • Overall goal of The European Library = COLLABORATION  Low implementation barrier for libraries is key!!

    TEL uses well-known access protocols

  • OAI-PMH

  • Z39.50

  • SRU

  • OpenURL

  • The European Library portal queries  100 harvested collections in 1 central index via OAI-PMH 210 remote collections via Z39.50 & SRU


Techniques protocols used 1

2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library

Techniques / protocols used (1)

1) OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting)

OAI enabled collections have their metadata harvested, indexed and stored in TEL central index

Queries in these collections are queries in TEL central index!


Techniques protocols used 2 3

2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library

Techniques / protocols used (2,3)

2) SRU (Search Retrieve via Url)

SRU enabled collections are queried on-the-fly using this protocol

 Direct communication with TEL-portal

3) Z39.50

Z39.50 enabled collections are queried on-the-fly via a Z39.50/SRU gateway

Z39.50/SRU gateway = translator


Techniques protocols used 4

2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library

Techniques / protocols used (4)

4) OpenURL for linking to external webservices


Techniques protocols used 5

2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library

Techniques / protocols used (5)

5)AJAX

Allows for browser page to be updated without reloading the page

  • Re-writing of portal interface in user-chosen language

  • Executing federated searches across chosen collections and updating the pages with returned results

(Asynchronous JavaScript And Xml)


2 the european library2
2. The European Library

2.3 How does it work?

Common standards

C. Collection

descriptions

A. Access protocols

B. Metadata

D. Multilingual

access


2.2.B Metadata in The European Library

All 170M records in The European Library are in same metadata format!!

Metadata  TEL Application Profile -- for Objects

Basis = Dublin Core+Expanded with elements from other metadata sets+ Custom TEL elements



2.2.B Metadata in The European Library

More info about metadataThe European Library Handbook

 www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook


2 the european library3
2. The European Library

2.3 How does it work?

Common standards

C. Collection

descriptions

A. Access protocols

B. Metadata

D. Multilingual

access


2.2.C Collection descriptions in The European Library

All 310 collection descriptions in The European Library are in same format!!

Collection descriptions  TEL Application Profile -- for Collections

 Help users to select collections they want to search in

 Each collection description translated in 24 languages



2.2.C Collection descriptions in The European Library

More info about collection descriptionsThe European Library Handbook

 www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook


2 the european library4
2. The European Library

2.3 How does it work?

Common standards

C. Collection

descriptions

A. Access protocols

B. Metadata

D. Multilingual

access


2.2.D Multi-linguality in The European Library

Multi-lingual access

  • Portal interface in 24 languages : done!

  • Collection descriptions in 24 languages : done!

    Multi-lingual search & retrieve

  • Subject headings / controlled vocabularies  prototype ready

  • Free text / uncontrolled vocabularies : major challenge!!


2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library

Portal interface

in 24 languages

English


2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library

Portal interface

in 24 languages

Danish


2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library

Portal interface

in 24 languages

Greek


2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library

Collection descriptions

in 24 languages

English


2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library

Collection descriptions

in 24 languages

Maltese


Structure of presentation6
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


Structure of presentation7
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


3.1 Introduction to the European Digital Library

The European Library

- operational

- pan-European

- multi-lingual portal

- giving access to digital cultural heritage

- from European libraries only

European Digital Library

- yet to be built

- pan-European

- multi-lingual portal

- giving access to digital cultural heritage

- from European libraries AND museums & archives


3.1 Introduction to the European Digital Library

Short historical context

  • December 2004 : Google announces its Google Print initiative (digitse 4 major US libraries + Oxford UK)

  • January 2005: comments by Jean-Noël Jeanneney (president BnF) : Anglo-American dominance

  • Large press coverage: “Europe’s cultural war with Google”

  • French call for safeguarding the European cultural heritage  support from European Union

  • European Union 2005 : “Creation of a European Digital Library is a strategic priority“


3.1 Introduction to the European Digital Library

Vision of the European Union

EU 2005 “Creation of a European Digital Library is a strategic priority“

EU 2006 “The European Libraryis a good starting point for a European Digital Library”




3.1 Introduction to the European Digital Library

The European Library

is a good starting point for a

European Digital Library

Why?


Structure of presentation8
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


3.2 Strenghts of TEL

Why?

The European Library already has already created

  • Operational technological platform(TEL portal)

  • Based on common open standards for access(OAI, Z39.50, SRU)

  • Based on common open standards for metadata(Dublin Core)

  • Firm cooperative organisational framework(20 years consencus &trust between European national libraries)


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

BUT…

A successful

European Digital Library

needs more ingredients ……


Structure of presentation9
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Weakness 1

The European Library is about

ACCESS

not

DIGITISATION & PRESERVATION


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Mass-digitisation of as many materials as possible

Long-time digital preservation of digitised materials

Problem

  • Only 5-10% of content in TEL are digital objects

  • Even lower %-tage is digitally preserved


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Solution

national programmes + Europe-wide network of competence centres

(funded by EU)


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Weakness 2

The European Library is about

FEDERATED SEARCHING

not

CENTRALISED SEARCHING


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

  • Federated searching (Z39.50, SRU)  sub-optimum user experience

  • Central database (OAI-PMH)  better user experience

  • Advantages of 1 central database : Google-like searching

  • Speed

  • Sorting - Ranking - de-duplication

  • Virtual collections


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Solution

Large-scale implementation of

OAI-PMH


Oai 2006

20%

20%

60%

OAI - 2006

OAI - 2006


Oai 2007
OAI - 2007

34%

40%

26%


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Weakness 3

The European Library is about

MULTI-LINGUAL ACCESS

not

MULTI-LINGUAL SEARCH & RETRIEVAL


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

1. TEL has multi-lingual access

  • portal interface in 24 languages  collection descriptions in 24 languages

    2. TEL has limited multilingual subject access controlled vocabularies

    But the holy grail is ……

    3. TEL has no multi-lingual search & retrieval e.g. Searching in German, finding texts in Spanish

     uncontrolled vocabularies/free texts


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

No solution

True multi-lingual

search & retrieval

is still distant


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Weakness 4

The European Library is about

LIBRARIES ONLY

not

MUSEUMS & ARCHIVES


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

For a successful European Digital Library

you need

1. Collaboration between libraries, museums and archives

… to agree on….

2. Technical & Interoperability strategy

3. Organisational models & Funding structure

4. Ownership & governance

5. Sustainability


3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

Solution

EDLnet


Structure of presentation10
Structure of presentation

1. National libraries in Europe

2. The European Library (TEL)2.1 What is it?2.2 Demo2.3 How does it work?

3. TEL as basis for European Digital Library (EDL) 3.1 Introduction to EDL3.2 Strenghts of TEL3.3 Weaknesses of TEL

4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

5. Future plans


4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

EDLnet ≠ The European Library

EDLnet ≠The European Digital Library

EDLnet ≠ Operational service

EDLnet ≠ Content of libraries only


4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

EDLnet =Feasibility studyconcertation exercise, consensus building, proof-of-concept , prototypes

to build The European Digital Library

EDLnet =4 domainsArchives + Museums + Libraries + AV-archives

EDLnet =cross-domain cooperative networksince Sept 07


4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

EDLnet - Cross-domain cooperative network

‘Coalition of the willing’ - 84 partners

  • Archives

  • AV-archives

  • Museums

  • Libraries

  • Universities

  • And more…


4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

EDLnet - Fields of work I

1) Building a large trusted & committed cross-domain community

- of archivists, librarians and museum people

- committed to make the European Digital Library a reality

2) Produce clear and usable recommendations

- on political, human, technical, semantical, metadata interoperability between 4 domains

- on organizational and business models


4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

EDLnet - Fields of work II

3) Building a fully working prototype (‘maquette’)- multilingual access to - collections from museums, (AV-) archives & libraries- covering over 2 million digital items based on - 1st Theme = ‘Cities’

4) A proposal for funding & planning– to create an operational European Digital Library service

from 2009 onwards


European digital library
European Digital Library

Interoperability

is key!


4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

Summary

Common and open standards for access and interoperability are essential for a European Digital Library

The European Library is the forerunner

Building a European Digital Library is a much a political & social game as it is a technological

Willingness to collaborate is key!!


4. From TEL to EDL – recent developments

Find out more on

EDLnet website

www.digitallibrary.eu

www.edlnet.eu


www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org

www.digitallibrary.eu

Questions?  olaf.janssen@kb.nl


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