Neo Classicism and Romanticism
Download
1 / 29

Neo Classicism and Romanticism 1750-1850 Drum Roll Please We Enter the Modern World. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 159 Views
  • Uploaded on

Neo Classicism and Romanticism 1750-1850 (Drum Roll Please) “We Enter the Modern World.”. Entire Era based on the ideas of the Enlightenment-new way of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Neo Classicism and Romanticism 1750-1850 Drum Roll Please We Enter the Modern World. ' - Antony


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

Neo Classicism and Romanticism

1750-1850

(Drum Roll Please)

“We Enter the Modern World.”


Slide2 l.jpg

  • Entire Era based on the ideas of the Enlightenment-new way of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Based on the scientific method (Newton) and empirical evidence (Locke)

  • Believed that humans are born good and nature grants them natural rights of life, liberty, property, and freedom of conscious

  • Art preceded by the Enlightenment (Voltaire, Rousseau)- all human affairs should be ruled by reason and the common good rather than established authority

  • Made knowledge accessible to everyone

  • Rousseau-arts and sciences have corrupted “natural man”, preached return to innocence, ignorance and happiness- against progress

  • Caused three major revolutions- French, American, and Industrial

  • Romanticism hard to define, overlapped Neo-Classicism and Rococo

  • For the first time, art was political commentary

  • Modern Era begins with the Revolutionary War and the French Revolution-”Modern”- an awareness of history

  • This caused the return to the classics in art- the basis for all reason- based a lot on Poussin’s art

  • We keep revisiting classicism but for different reasons-

    • Renaissance- humanism

    • Baroque- power

    • Neo Classicism- reason


Slide3 l.jpg

  • Jacques Louis David (1748-1825) of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Neo-Poussinist

  • Took an active part in the French Revolution- artistic power similar to Lebrun

  • Marat murdered in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday

  • Stark Directness- a martyred hero- classical art + devotional image

  • Obviously influenced by Caravaggio (who wasn’t?!)

David, Death of Marat, 1793


Slide4 l.jpg

  • England of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Benjamin West (1738-1820)

  • martyrdom of another hero-General Wolfe from French and Indian War

  • AMERICAN PAINTER!!!- first American Artist to travel to Europe, but ended up staying in England and heading the Royal Academy (succeeding Reynolds)

  • merged classical feel (Poussin) with contemporary clothes and people (Indians!)

  • Recalls lamentation scene- shift in focus of Modern Society- from religion to nationalism

West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1770


Slide5 l.jpg

  • John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Moved to London 2 years before American Revolution- was New England’s most outstanding portraitist

  • Watson and the Shark- attacked by a shark while swimming in the Havana Harbor and dramatically rescued- commissioned Copley

  • Made every detail as real as possible- Baroque emotions

  • Becomes a moral allegory- Jonah and the Whale, Archangel Michael fighting with Satan

Copley, Watson and the Shark, 1778


Slide6 l.jpg

  • Houdon (1741-1828) of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Sculpture was overwhelmed by the authority of ancient statues such as the Apollo Belvedere-most just copied these sculptures

  • Portraiture was the most viable option

  • Makes Voltaire seem worthy of Greek philosopher, but keeps the likeness

Houdon, Voltaire, 1781


Slide7 l.jpg

  • In the Virginia State Capital!!! of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Invited to America to sculpt Washington-

  • Completed two- one in contemporary clothing, one in classical clothing

  • Greek pose- leaning on a bundle of rods that symbolizes union

Houdon, George Washington, 1788-92


Slide8 l.jpg

Burlington and Kent, Chiswick House, 1725 of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Palladian revival- adapted from the Villa Rotunda

  • Exact opposite of Baroque fancy

  • Seen as much more natural than the Baroque- Enlightenment thinkers thought that Classical times were the most “natural” state of man- satisfied the demands of reason


Slide9 l.jpg

Jefferson, Monticello, 1770-84, 1796-1806 of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Rediscovery of Greek art coincided with excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii-archeology became the rage and interior decorating was influenced by what was found at the site

  • Palladianism called “Georgian” in the Colonies, Greek Revival

  • Jefferson used Roman Doric columns instead of Corinthian like Chiswick House


Slide10 l.jpg

  • Romanticism of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition-

  • Enlightenment let loose the opposite of reason too- helped to create a new wave of emotionalism- known as Romanticism

  • Word derived from medieval tales of adventure (King Arthur)-Gothic!

  • Those that hated the current social, religious, or political order tried to form a new order based on reason, or seek release in an emotional experience

  • Romantic worshipped nature as unbounded and ever-changing

  • Believed that if people were free to behave “naturally”, then evil would disappear-exalted liberty, power, love, violence, Middle Ages

  • Creation of art cannot be truly Romantic because it requires detachment and discipline

  • Could not use established order of art, so revival of any past art was popular

  • Neo-classicism is actually part of this idea


Slide11 l.jpg

9’2”X11’!!! of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800

  • Patrons had a greater appreciation for individual style-mostly merchants and professionals

  • Francisco Goya (1746-1828)- only artist that can be called genius of this age

  • Had revolution sympathies, but much admired at court as portrait painter- influenced by Velasquez and Rembrandt- Unmasks the royal family- makes them look human


Slide12 l.jpg

Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 8’9”X13’4” of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Commemorates the French murder of Spanish citizens during Napoleon’s occupation

  • Very Neo-Baroque style, emotional intensity of a religious work, but martyrs are dying for liberty- symbol of modern experience


Slide13 l.jpg

Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818-19 16X23!! of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • In Napoleon, Gericault saw thrill of violent action, believed in Michelangelo’s idea of the expressive power of the nude

  • Rescue of stranded men from a ship wreck-raft had been set adrift by cowardly captain- men left to die- was a political scandal (he opposed the re-established monarchy)- search for the truth- interview survivors and examined corpses

  • Man against the elements-like Watson and the Shark


Slide14 l.jpg

Ingres, Odalisque, 1814 of thinking about the world and humankind that was independent of religion, myth, or tradition

  • Pupil of David, too young to be involved with the revolution (1780-1867)

  • Tried to continue the Neo-Classical dogmas- revisited the old argument of Poussinists v. Rubenistes- thought that drawing was more important than color

  • But this painting does not follow his own doctrine

  • “Odalisque”- Turkish word for a harem slave girl- exotic subject matter very popular


Slide15 l.jpg

Ingres, Louis Bertin, 1832


Slide16 l.jpg

Damier, Third Class Carriage, 1862 overtaken by photography!

  • One of the only Romantics that did not shy from reality- Honore’ Damier-sometimes called a Realist

  • Remained unknown as a painter- known as a political cartoonist

  • Emotional content more important than depicting reality- physically crowded, yet are not connected in any way-a modern condition, dignity of the poor


Slide17 l.jpg

Damier, Don Quixote, 1866 overtaken by photography!

  • New Medium- Lithography- invented in Germany 1800

  • Print is made on a flat surface, using a greasy crayon- fixed onto stone with an acid wash. Surface is then dampened- the ink repels the water and is soaked up by the grease- paper is pressed onto the stone to make the prints

  • Very cheap way of reproducing art- used in commercial printing


Slide18 l.jpg

  • Landscape art became the most characteristic form of Romantic art- cult of nature- modified the appearance of nature to reach a heightened state of emotion

  • Corot - became an important developer for modern landscapes

  • Completed most of his painting in one sitting- the “truth of the moment”

  • First to paint alla fresca- outside!

Corot, La Toilette, 1859


Slide19 l.jpg

Millet, Shepherdess with her Flock, c. 1850 Romantic art- cult of nature- modified the appearance of nature to reach a heightened state of emotion

  • Part of the Barbizon School, a group centered around Barbizon, near Paris who painted landscapes and rural life

  • Makes peasants into timeless figures- memorializes a way of life that was disappearing due to the industrial revolution


Slide20 l.jpg

Fuseli, The Nightmare, c. 1790 Romantic art- cult of nature- modified the appearance of nature to reach a heightened state of emotion

  • Contemporary of West and Copley, had a great impact on his time- forceful personality, influenced by the Mannerists and by Michelangelo and Shakespeare

  • Medieval-like feeling- quest for violence leads to the subconscious- often sexual in nature (horse is an erotic symbol)


Slide21 l.jpg

  • Poet-Painter William Blake-very strange personality- a recluse and a visionary

  • Published his own illustrated volumes of poetry-like illuminated manuscripts

  • Great admirer of the Middle Ages

  • Figure is greatly foreshortened-mannerist sources

  • Stands not for God, but for the power of reason, which he believed was destructive

Blake, The Ancient of Days, 1794


Slide22 l.jpg

  • Landscape painting from observable fact recluse and a visionary

  • Concerned with conditions of light, sky, and atmosphere

  • Sky is often the focal point

  • Show familiar scenes of English countryside but through his eyes

  • Painted oil sketches outdoors and then finished them in his studio

John Constable, Hampstead Heath 1821


Slide23 l.jpg

JMW Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840 recluse and a visionary

  • Obsessed with colored light, often unrecognizable from original sketches

  • Linked with literary themes, often added quotations at exhibitions this one is based on a real event

  • Defeat of man against nature is a theme- apocalyptic quality


Slide24 l.jpg

Thomas Cole, Schoon Mountain, Adirondacks, 1838 recluse and a visionary

  • Finally an art based on the present- saw nature like Europeans- as an escape from civilization, especially as exploration spread- seen as very American

  • Thomas Cole- leader of the Hudson River School (1825-1876)- trees and mountains became symbols for the American spirit


Slide25 l.jpg

  • Sculpture is a lot less adventuresome than painting during this time period

  • Sculpture was more finished and less raw because of the process itself

  • Reinterpretation of the classical style

  • Antonio Canova- glorification of rulers by creating them in a classical style

  • Idealized, precursor to the Odalisque-although the sculpture actually looks less three-dimensional than the painting

Canova, Pauline Borghese As Venus, 1808


Slide26 l.jpg

Walpole and Robinson, Strawberry Hill, 1749-77 this time period

  • Gothic Revival- mostly seen in England- vogue for Medieval romances

  • Playful and exotic looking- rather like a theme park!

  • Appeal is its strangeness


Slide27 l.jpg

Latrobe, Baltimore Cathedral, 1805


Slide28 l.jpg

Garnier, Paris Opera House, 1861-74 this time period

  • Romantic style was all about revival! Neo-Baroque, Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic

  • This is Neo-Baroque-sculpture and ornament especially-looks overdressed

  • People who were newly rich due to the industrial revolution saw themselves as heirs to the aristocracy before the revolution- looked more to that style of art


Slide29 l.jpg

Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1850-51 this time period

  • Completely “undraped” architecture became popular

  • Experimentation of technique and material- glass and iron

  • Built for the Great Exhibition of 1851- to gather works of industry from all nations

  • Took only six months to construct and then dismantled-rebuilt at another site until it burned in 1936

  • Plan taken from Roman Basilicas


ad