Leadership. There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Machiavelli. Management" versus Leadership. 'Leadership'
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There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.
'Management' (Latin manus) - a hand, handling a sword, a ship, a horse.
What do managers and leaders do? (Zaleznik 1977)
Managers focus attention & energy on
Leaders more concerned with
Telling people what to do and how to do it more than vision and giving a sense of direction?
Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate
Leaders have followers. They
'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule’ Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'. (Peters & Austin, 1985).
Mayo and Hawthorne experiments (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939)
Kurt Lewin (1939)
Alan Fox – Research Paper to Donovan Commission 1968
situation & L-F
specific to situation
Breadth of applicationTypology of leadership theory
Effective leaders are often
Nature over nurture
Leadership is learned, although I cannot explain entirely how ... The ability to lead and inspire others is .. more instinctual than premeditated and … acquired somehow through the experiences of one's everyday life …. the nature & quality of that leadership comes out of … innate character & personality…
Harold Geneen ITT
psychometric tests for assessment and selection.
functional emphasis based on task situation and socio-emotional needs
Stogdill (1948, 1956)
If L-behaviour best fits group situation, what if this changes?
Concern for people
Concern for production
use of authority by
decision making &
action freedom for
Continuum based on situational factors:
value system, wants, confidence, willingness.
Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that ---> high task performance by group. Depends on
Measure preferred style
- External circumstances affect L ability to influence
- Change leader (personality?) to fit situation or restructure to reflect strengths?
Fiedler and Garcia 1987 pp 49-55
See Chapter 13 Rollinson
If Fielder is right
BureaucratReddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach)
Passive: set standards/objectives, wait for, react to, reluctant intervention. Status quo
Active: standards/objectives, monitor, correct, look for error,
enforce rules/procedures. Low initiative and risk-taking
constructive transactions, contingent rewards
'These are the rules and this is how you've broken them'.
'Let's work out together the rules to identify mistakes'
John Harvey-Jones (ICI)
4 x I
Encouraging TL will
Transformational leadership application
Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966
'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr & Jermier 1978)