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HACCP and Food Safety. Information for all SchoolFood Employees. Sept 2006. Table of Contents. Introduction What is HACCP? Why use HACCP? Who is responsible for HAACP? When is HACCP used? How is HACCP learned? HACCP Principles Seven Steps of HACCP The SchoolFood HACCP Program

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HACCP and Food Safety

Information for all SchoolFood Employees

Sept 2006

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    • What is HACCP?

    • Why use HACCP?

    • Who is responsible for HAACP?

    • When is HACCP used?

    • How is HACCP learned?

  • HACCP Principles

    • Seven Steps of HACCP

    • The SchoolFood HACCP Program

    • Critical Control Points

  • Serving Safe Food

    • It Starts with You

  • Basic Biology

    • Types of Contaminants

    • Microbes 101

    • FAT-TOM

    • Bacterial Growth

  • Contamination and Foodborne Illness

    • Overview

    • Biological Contamination

    • Chemical Contamination

    • Physical Contamination

  • Safe Employees

    • Overview

    • Uniform Review

    • Handwashing

    • Using Gloves

    • Thermometer Use

    • During Prep and Service

  • Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food

    • Headquarters' Role

    • Receiving Guidelines

    • Inspection of Items Received

  • Storing Safe Food

    • Overview

    • First In, First Out (FIFO)

    • Labeling and Dating

    • Equipment Temperatures

    • Expiration Dates

    • “Best If Used By” Guidelines

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Table of Contents

  • Preparing Safe Food

    • Overview

    • Temperature Review

    • Defrosting Safely

    • Hot Food Issues

    • Cold Food Issues

    • Satellite Food Issues

    • Cross Contamination

    • Storing Prepared Food Safely

  • Cleaning and Sanitizing

    • Preparing Solution

    • Red Bucket, Gray Bucket

    • Clean As You Go

    • Can Opener and Slicer

  • Integrated Pest Management

    • Overview

    • Storeroom Issues

    • Communication

  • HACCP Reviews

    • Overview

    • HACCP Review Form

    • HACCP and DoH Inspections

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What is HACCP?

  • Proven method used to ensure the safety of the foods we serve

  • Originally developed for NASA space flights

  • Systematic approach that ensures food safety by looking at all processes as food “flows” through our kitchens

    • Ordering

    • Receiving

    • Storage

    • Preparation and Holding

    • Service

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Why use HACCP?

  • It works!—Proven Industry Standard

  • It is mandated—SchoolFood must have procedures in place to demonstrate how we maintain and verify food safety

    • USDA Requirement

    • New York State Education Dept Requirement

    • New York City Department of Health

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Who is Responsible for HACCP?

  • Every SchoolFood employee

  • Each employee has an individual and team role

    • Correct issues immediately and inform coworkers

  • Seek guidance from the Manager and Cook-in-Charge

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When is HACCP Used?

  • At all times in our operations

    HACCP follows the flow of food through our kitchens

    • Receiving

    • Storage

    • Preparation

    • Service

    • Clean-up

  • When developing new recipes and procedures

    • HACCP principles guide development and implementation

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    How is HACCP learned?

    • Training

      • Classroom Training

      • Training Centers

    • Application

      • During 120-day Probation period

      • HACCP Inspection reviews

    • Feedback

      • Ask questions

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    Key Points

    Big Things to Remember

    Top three causes of food borne illness –

    we control the risk

    • Food Temperatures

      • Calibrate thermometers daily

      • Check food temperatures at preparation, holding, and serving

    • Cross Contamination

      • Defrost food properly

      • Keep stations clean

      • Use sanitizing solution between tasks

    • Poor Personal Hygiene

      • Wash Hands frequently

      • Use gloves

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    Key Points

    Food Temperatures

    Keep food out of the Danger Zone at every stage of Production

    Protein Items Stored at proper temperatures

    Protein Items Cooked to Internal Temperature of 165°F

    Protein Items Held at Internal Temperature above 140°F

    Protein Items Served at Internal Temperature above 140°F

    Protein Items Cooledto Internal Temperature below 40°F within two hours

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    HACCP Principles

    Seven Steps of HACCP

    • Assess the Hazards

      Review Operations

    • Identify Critical Control Points

      Where hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced

    • Set Standards

      Guidelines for all operations

    • Monitor Critical Control Points

      Verify proper procedures are being followed

    • Take Corrective Action

      Correct issues immediately

    • Keep Records

      Temperature and Production Records

    • Verify the System is Working

      HACCP Review Team to verify

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    HACCP Principles

    The SchoolFood HACCP Program

    • SchoolFood integrates HACCP procedures into our daily practices

      • HACCP is “built into” our operations

    • Training Manuals provide direction and additional information

    • Be ready to implement new procedures

      • Based on real-world experience

      • Based on HACCP reviews

      • Based on new items and recipes

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    HACCP Principles

    Critical Control Points

    • Points where there is a potential danger to food

      • Develop and implement a procedure to minimize the risk

    • CCP: Hot Food must be held at above 140°F

    • Procedure:

      • Monitor food temperatures during holding time

      • Thermometers calibrated for accurate readings

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    Serving Safe Food

    It Starts With You

    • Understanding how important Food Safety is

    • Applying HACCP principles at work (and home)

    • Helping coworkers understand

    • Asking Questions

    • Following HACCP procedures

    • Wearing a clean uniform

    • Taking action

    • Working smart

    • Keeping customers safe

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    Basic Biology

    Types of Contaminants

    • Bacteria: Causes most cases of food borne illness

    • Viruses: Focus on personal hygiene

    • Parasites: Need a host to survive

    • Fungi: spoilage microorganism

      Some contaminants “show” their danger


      Sour Milk

      Some contaminants “hide” their danger


      Hepatitis A

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    Basic Biology

    Microbes 101

    Food Borne Illness may result from


    Pathogens grow in the intestines of someone who has eaten contaminated food: symptoms may take time to appear


    Caused by eating food containing poisonous toxins that are not destroyed by cooking

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    Basic Biology


    Bacteria require the following to grow:

    • Food—Energy to multiply

    • Acidity—Proper pH level

    • Temperature—proper range for growth

    • Time—to multiply

    • Oxygen—Survival*

    • Moisture

      How do we control or limit the food bacteria need to grow?

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    Basic Biology

    Bacterial Growth—Time

    • How Bacteria Grow over time

      • Multiplication

    • Bacteria will grow as long as conditions are right

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    Basic Biology

    Bacterial Growth—Conditions

    • How Bacteria grow in good conditions

    • Growth Chart

      • Lag Phase: stable and preparing for growth

      • Log Phase: rapid growth

      • Stationary Phase: rate of death and growth are the same

      • Death Phase: More bacteria dying than growing




    Number of Bacteria



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    Basic Biology

    Bacterial Growth—Temperatures

    • How Bacteria Grow at Different Temperatures

    At 50°F

    At 95°F

    At 44°F

    Number of Salmonella Cells

    At 42°F








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    Contamination and Foodborne Illness

    Contamination and Foodborne Illness

    Biological contamination

    • Bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi

      Chemical contamination

    • Toxic metals, pesticides and chemicals

      Physical contamination

    • Foreign matter, staples, metal shavings

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    Standard Operating Procedures

    • SOPs provide guidance on how to complete many tasks

    • Review posted SOPs and follow correct procedures

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    Safe Employees

    Safe Employees

    • Safe food begins and ends with you

    • SchoolFood employees are on the front line

    • Work to provide safe food to your customers

      • Apply what you learn to your daily tasks

    • Adhere to SchoolFood practices and procedures

    • Ask questions if you are unsure of the proper procedure

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    Safe Employees

    Uniform Review

    • Follow SchoolFood procedures

    • Wear a clean uniform daily

    • No nail tips or polish

    • Visible Jewelry

    • Wedding Band with no stones

    • Watch

    • Safe shoes

    • Restrain Hair

      • Hairnet worn hairline-to-hairline

      • SchoolFood Hat if all hair is restrained

      • Hairnet and Hat to restrain hair

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    Safe Employees



    • Wet Hands using Hot water

    • Apply Soap

    • Lather and Wash for 20 seconds

    • Rinse

    • Dry with paper towels

      Wash Hands After:

    • Using restroom

    • Touching your hair or face

    • Eating or Smoking

    • Completing a task and before using new gloves

    • After touching any source of contamination

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    Safe Employees

    Using Gloves

    Gloves protect the food, not the employee

    • Use gloves to avoid bare-hand contact with food during preparation and production

    • Wear gloves while serving food

    • Change gloves:

      • When moving from task to task

      • After touching your hair or face

      • After touching any source of contamination

    • Do not store gloves in pockets or apron

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    Safe Employees

    Thermometer Use

    A Tool for Food Safety

    • Test and calibrate thermometers daily

      • Use “slush” mixture of ice and water

      • Place thermometer in mixture

      • Needle should read 32°F

      • Adjust if necessary

    • Retest if dropped

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    Safe Employees

    During Prep and Service

    • Sanitizing Solution at all work stations

    • Clean as You Go

      • Clear, Clean, and sanitize work station between tasks

    • Follow temperature guidelines when preparing temperature-sensitive foods

      • Sandwiches

      • Hot Foods

    • Label and Date prep items and leftovers

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    Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food

    Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food

    • SchoolFood Food Technology Department sets specifications for our products

      • Working with manufacturers

    • Manufacturers monitor their food safety practices during production

    • Microbiological testing completed regularly

    • Receiving procedures continue the focus on safe food

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    Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food

    Receiving Guidelines

    Apply Food Safety principles when receiving deliveries

    • Check temperatures of items

    • Frozen items must be received in a frozen state

    • Wet boxes signal the product has been defrosted

    • Ice crystals signal the product has been thawed and refrozen

    • Look for expiration dates

    • Return unsatisfactory products to vendor

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    Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food

    Inspection of Items Received

    • Milk Temperatures

    • Production dates and expiration dates

    • USDA stamps

    • Open cases of fruits and vegetables

    • Notify Manager or Cook-in-Charge if you have questions

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    Storing Safe Food

    Storing Safe Food

    • Store frozen and refrigerated products quickly

    • Date all products before stocking shelves

    • All food stored 6” above the floor on racks

    • Labels facing out

    • Monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures daily

    • Utilize “Best If Used By” Guidelines

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    Storing Safe Food


    • First In, First Out

    • Rotate stock to utilize the oldest product first

    • Label cases with delivery dates

      • mm/dd/yy

    • Use FIFO in all storage areas

      • Freezers

      • Refrigerators

      • Storerooms

      • Paper Storage

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    Storing Safe Food

    Labeling and Dating

    • Label cases with delivery date and production date

      • Label individual cans if they are removed from the case

    • Ask Manager or Cook-in-Charge for help with some production dates

      • Julian Calendar

    • Use dates to monitor FIFO

    • Cover, Label, and Date all leftover products

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    Storing Safe Food

    Equipment Temperatures

    Monitor daily

    • Freezers 0°F - −10°F

    • Refrigerators 36°F – 40°F

    • Milk Chests 36°F – 40°F

    • Warmers To hold food above 140°F

    • Opening and closing doors will affect internal temperature

    • Place equipment repair request if equipment is not working properly

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    Storing Safe Food

    Expiration Dates

    • Expiration Date on package

      • Milk

      • Fresh Juices

      • DoD Produce

      • Yogurt

      • Cookies

      • Soda

    • Monitor these dates and take action

      • Notify the Manager or Cook-in-Charge if a product is approaching the expiration date

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    Storing Safe Food

    “Best If Used By” Guidelines

    • Use production date to calculate shelf life

    • Periodic review of all products

    • Utilize products that are nearing their expiration date

      • Inform Manager and Cook-in-Charge

    • Ask questions!

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Preparing Safe Food

    • Preparation is where our focus on safety “pays off”

    • Temperature Control

      • Monitor Internal Temperature

      • Monitor Holding Temperature

    • “Temperature Abuse”

      • Food held in Danger Zone

      • Failure to cook to internal temperature of 165°F

      • Failure to properly chill foods

      • Preparing meals too far in advance

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Temperature Review

    • Cold Foods

      • Served and held at 40°F and below

    • Hot Foods

      • Cooked to an internal temperature of at least 165°F

      • Served and held at 140°F and above

    • Hot Foods cooled quickly for storage

      • Two hour window to safe temperatures

      • Wrap, label, date, refrigerate

    Cold Food – Hold and Serve at 40°F and below

    Cook to this temperature – 165°F

    Hot Food – Hold and Serve at 140°and above

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Defrosting Safely

    • Defrost raw products on bottom shelf of refrigerator

      • Prevent cross contamination

    • Wash utensils and equipment between tasks

    • Standardized recipes provide item-specific instructions

      • Holding temperatures

      • Holding times

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    Standardized Recipes

    • Each recipe classified for Food Safety Purposes

    • 1

    • 2

    • 3

    • Follow HACCP and preparation instructions to maintain food safety

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Hot Food Issues

    • Always use Preheated ovens

    • Batch Cook

    • Monitor Cooking Temperatures

    • Reheat once to over 165°F if temperature falls below 140°F

    • Evaluate items for service the following day

      • Wrap, Date, Refrigerate

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Cold Food Issues

    • Use Ice Packs and Cold Wells to maintain temperatures below 40°F

    • Monitor Temperatures during production

    • Cold Wells and Salad Bars must have all spaces covered to be effective

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Satellite Food Issues

    Satellite Meal Issues

    • Temperature

      • Verify temperatures before pick-up by courier

    • Time

      • Limit time between preparation and consumption

    • Menu

      • Certain items identified for Satellite use

    • Quantity

      • Check for proper production amounts

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Cross Contamination

    Transfer of bacteria from one product to the other

    Prevent cross contamination:

    • Create “barriers” between food products

    • Do not mix food from different batches

    • Defrost raw meat on bottom shelf in refrigerator

    • Use gloves—no bare-hand contact with food

    • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize

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    Preparing Safe Food

    Storing Prepared Food Safely

    • Cool product as quickly as possible

      • Transfer to shallow pans

        • Place in refrigerator

        • Place in Freezer

        • On Ice Packs

        • In Ice Water bath

      • Stir contents frequently

      • Monitor temperatures

        • Drop to 70°F within 2 hours

        • Drop to 40°F within an additional 4 hours

      • Wrap, Date, and Label

      • Do not crowd refrigerator

    • Evaluate the following day for service

    • Reheat to over 165°F only once

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    Cleaning and Sanitizing

    Cleaning and Sanitizing

    Bleach Solution

    • 1 cap bleach to 1 gallon cool water

      • Bleach is “killed” by hot water

      • Immerse for at least one minute

      • Allow to air dry

        • Use paper towel to dry if needed

      • Change solution after 2 hours or if it becomes cloudy

        Quaternary Solution

    • 1 QuixPlus Towel in 1 gallon cool water

      • Change solution after 2 hours or if it becomes cloudy

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    Cleaning and Sanitizing

    Cleaning and Sanitizing


    • Red Buckets for Sanitizing Solution

      • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize daily

    • Grey Bucket

      • Half Soapy Hot Water for Washing

      • Half Hot Water for Rinsing

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    Cleaning and Sanitizing

    Clean As You Go

    • “CAYGO”

    • Keep your station clear as you work

      • Wash, Rinse, Sanitize between tasks

    • Prevent work from piling up

    • Work Clean

    • Better Organization

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    Cleaning and Sanitizing

    Can Opener and Slicer

    • Breeding ground for bacteria

    • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize between each use

      • Small details have a big impact

        Question: What could happen?

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    Integrated Pest Management

    Integrated Pest Management

    • Team approach to managing pest control

      • SchoolFood Staff

      • Custodian

      • Pest Control Technician

    • Safe, approved products used in all areas

    • Kitchen staff maintains a clean, clear environment

    • Notify custodian of issues needing repair

    • Inform Pest Control Technician if activity has increased or changed

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    Integrated Pest Management

    Storeroom Issues

    • All items stored on shelves at least 6” off floor on racks

    • Date and rotate all items

    • Check expiration dates weekly

    • Sweep and check for activity daily

    • Change glue boards

    • Inform Manager of increased activity or entry points

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    Integrated Pest Management


    • Successful implementation requires open communication between all groups

    • Each has their role to play in maintaining a safe environment


      • Cleanliness and reporting


      • Repairs

        Pest Control

      • Service school regularly

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    HACCP Reviews

    HACCP Reviews

    • HACCP Team evaluates our operations

    • Schools are “scored” on how they implement and demonstrate safe food handling practices

    • Strive for improvement and increased safety

    • Discuss issues and develop safe work habits

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    HACCP Reviews

    HACCP Review Form

    • Review categories and subject

    • Flow of Food followed through the operation

    • Critical Control Points

    • Proper procedures in place

    • All employees engaged in the process

    • Reinforcement and communication to resolve issues

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    HACCP Reviews

    HACCP Review and DoH Inspections

    • Each follow the same flow of food

    • Use HACCP as a benchmark

    • Schools with positive HACCP reviews will do well on DoH inspections

      • “How are we doing?”

    • DoH data posted for each school

      • Parent review

      • Principal review

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    What Happens Next

    • “Look” for HACCP procedures during your training period

    • Apply HACCP principles daily

    • Ask questions and seek guidance from your Manager and Cook-in-Charge

    • Be ready to accept change as HACCP procedures are updated to react to operational issues

    • Be a team player! Positive HACCP and Department of Health results show effective teamwork

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    Scenario 1

    Scenario 2

    Scenario 3

    Group Task

    • Review the scenario presented to your group

    • Each group has fifteen minutes to discuss the scenario

    • One person from each group will review their scenario with the entire group