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The Respiratory System. Basic functions of the respiratory system Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) – movement of air in and out of the lungs Inhalation (inspiration) draws gases into the lungs. Exhalation (expiration) forces gases out of the lungs.

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the respiratory system
The Respiratory System
  • Basic functions of the respiratory system
    • Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) – movement of air in and out of the lungs
      • Inhalation (inspiration) draws gases into the lungs.
      • Exhalation (expiration) forces gases out of the lungs.
    • Gas Conditioning – as gases pass through the nasal cavity and paransal sinuses, inhaled air becomes turbulent. The gases in the air are

• warmed to body temperature

• humidified

• cleaned of particulate matter

    • Gas Exchange - respiration

• Supplies body with oxygen

• Disposes of carbon dioxide

    • Produces Sounds
    • Protects respiratory surfaces
    • Site for olfactory sensation
  • Respiration – four distinct processes must happen
    • Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs
    • External respiration – gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
    • Transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues
    • Internal respiration – gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
functional anatomy of the respiratory system
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
  • Respiratory organs
    • Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
    • Pharynx, larynx, and trachea
    • Bronchi and smaller branches
    • Lungs and alveoli
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Consists of
    • Respiratory muscles – diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation
    • Respiratory zone – site of external respiration – respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
    • Conducting zones
      • Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange
      • Includes nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea
      • Air passages undergo 23 orders of branching in the lungs
the nose
The Nose
  • Provides an airway for respiration
  • Moistens and warms air
  • Filters inhaled air
  • Resonating chamber for speech
  • Houses olfactory receptors
  • Skin is thin – contains many sebaceous glands
the nasal cavity
The Nasal Cavity
  • External nares – nostrils
  • Divided by – nasal septum
  • Vestibule - anterior opening
  • Continuous with nasopharynx
  • Two types of mucous membrane
    • Olfactory mucosa - Near roof of nasal cavity, houses olfactory (smell) receptors
    • Respiratory mucosa - Lines nasal cavity
      • Epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated columnar
      • Goblet cells within epithelium
      • Underlying layer of lamina propria has glands that contribute to the mucus layer and blood vessels that warm the air.
      • Cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly
nasal conchae
Nasal Conchae
  • 3 paired bony projections along the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
  • Superior and middle nasal conchae - part of the ethmoid bone
  • Inferior nasal conchae - separate bone
  • Function - Particulate matter deflected to mucus-coated surfaces
the paranasal sinuses
The Paranasal Sinuses

Figure 7.11a, b

the pharynx
The Pharynx
  • Funnel-shaped passageway
  • Connects nasal cavity and mouth
  • Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems
  • Divided into three sections by location
    • Nasopharynx – superior portion,
    • Oropharynx – continuous with the oral cavity
    • Laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone and the esophagus
  • Type of mucosal lining changes along its length
the nasopharynx
The Nasopharynx
  • Superior to the point where food enters
  • Only an air passageway
  • Closed off during swallowing
  • Epithelium consists of ciliated pseudostratified epithelium that moves mucus
the oropharynx
The Oropharynx
  • Arch-like entranceway – fauces
    • Extends from soft palate to the epiglottis
  • Epithelium - stratified squamous epithelium
  • Two types of tonsils in the oropharynx
    • Palatine tonsils – in the lateral walls of the fauces
    • Lingual tonsils – covers the posterior surface of the tongue
the laryngopharynx
The Laryngopharynx
  • Passageway for both food and air
  • Epithelium - stratified squamous epithelium
  • Continuous with the esophagus and larynx
the larynx
The Larynx
  • Prevent food and drink from entering the trachea
  • Passageway for air
  • Produces Sound
  • It connects the pharynx to the trachea
  • Epithelium of the larynx
    • Stratified squamous – superior portion
    • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar – inferior portion
nine cartilages of the larynx
Nine Cartilages of the Larynx
  • Thyroid cartilage - shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple)
  • Three pairs of small cartilages
    • Arytenoid cartilages
    • Corniculate cartilages
    • Cuneiform cartilages
  • Epiglottis - tips inferiorly during swallowing
the larynx17
The Larynx
  • Vocal ligaments of the larynx
    • Vocal folds (true vocal cords) - act in sound production
    • Vestibular folds (false vocal cords) - no role in sound production
  • Voice production
    • Length of the vocal folds changes with pitch
    • Loudness depends on the force of air across the vocal folds
the trachea
The Trachea
  • Descends into the mediastinum
  • C-shaped cartilage rings keep airway open
  • Carina - marks where trachea divides into two primary bronchi
  • Epithelium - pseudostratified ciliated columnar
the trachea19
The Trachea

Figure 21.7a, b

bronchi in the conducting zone
Bronchi in the Conducting Zone
  • Bronchial tree - extensively branching respiratory passageways
    • Primary bronchi (main bronchi)
      • Largest bronchi
      • Right main bronchi - wider and shorter than the left
    • Secondary (lobar) bronchi
      • Three on the right
      • Two on the left
    • Tertiary (segmental) bronchi - branch into each lung segment
    • Bronchioles - little bronchi, less than 1 mm in diameter
    • Terminal bronchioles - less than 0.5 mm in diameter
tissue composition of conducting zone
Tissue Composition of Conducting Zone
  • Changes along pathway
  • Supportive connective tissues change
    • C-shaped rings – trachea, primary bronchi
    • Replaced by cartilage plates, secondary & tertiary bronchi
  • Epithelium changes
    • First, pseudostratified ciliated columnar – trachea
    • Replaced by simple columnar - bronchi
    • Then simple cuboidal epithelium - bronchioles and terminal bronchioles
  • Smooth muscle becomes important at the bronchioles - controlled by the ANS (bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation).
lobes and surfaces of the lungs
Lobes and Surfaces of the lungs
  • Right lung has three lobes
  • Left lung has two lobes
  • Concavity on medial surface = cardiac notch
  • Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus
the pleurae
The Pleurae
  • A double-layered sac surrounding each lung
    • Parietal pleura
    • Visceral pleura
  • Pleural cavity - potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
  • Pleurae help divide the thoracic cavity
    • Central mediastinum
    • Two lateral pleural compartments
structures of the respiratory zone
Structures of the Respiratory Zone
  • Consists of air-exchanging structures
  • Respiratory bronchioles – branch from terminal bronchioles
    • Lead to alveolar ducts
      • Lead to alveolar sacs
features of alveoli
Features Of Alveoli
  • Alveoli cell types
    • Type I cells site of gas exchangeand
    • Type II cells - secrete surfactant
    • Macrophages
  • Surrounded by basal laminae and elastic fibers
  • Interconnect by way of alveolar pores
  • Internal surfaces - site for free movement of alveolar macrophages

Figure 21.10b